Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants (n = 2,378)

Non-diabetes HbA1c <5.7%

n = 1,012

Pre-diabetes HbA1c ≥5.7%

n = 1,049

Diabetesa

n = 317

Pb
Age (y) 61.0 ±9.9c 61.8 ±9.5 63.1 ±9.5 0.001
Male sex (n (%)) 800 (79.1) 855 (81.5) 256 (80.8) 0.28
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.5 ±3.4 26.7 ±3.6 28.4 ±4.3 <0.001
Coronary history (n (%))
Myocardial infarction 410 (40.5) 432 (41.2) 139 (43.8) 0.34
Percutaneous coronary intervention 209 (20.7) 229 (21.8) 74 (23.3) 0.29
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery 135 (13.3) 150 (14.3) 47 (14.8) 0.44
Coronary risk factors (n (%))
Hypertensiond 430 (42.5) 461 (43.9) 217 (68.5) <0.001
Current smokere 313 (30.9) 339 (32.3) 88 (27.8) 0.57
Serum lipids
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.73 ±1.28 1.76 ±1.00 2.17 ±1.27 <0.001
Apolipoprotein A-I (g/L) 1.28 ±0.25 1.24 ±0.25 1.22 ±0.26 <0.001
Apolipoprotein B (g/L) 0.90 ±0.25 0.86 ±0.23 0.88 ±0.22 0.004
Glucose status
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.6 ±1.1 5.8 ±1.1 9.8 ±3.4 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 4.9 ±0.6 6.5 ±0.8 7.5 ±1.8 <0.001
Inflammation markers and renal function
C-reactive protein (mg/L)f 1.76 (0.85, 3.68) 1.85 (0.89, 4.23) 2.07 (1.00, 4.40) 0.45
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min) 90.0 ±15.3 90.7 ±14.4 88.8 ±17.5 0.61
LVEF and severity of coronary artery disease at baseline angiography (n (%))
LVEF <50% 89 (8.8) 118 (11.2) 44 (13.9) 0.006
Three-vessel disease 316 (31.2) 330 (31.5) 115 (36.3) 0.19
Medication at discharge from hospital (n (%))
Statins 889 (87.8) 948 (90.4) 280 (88.3) 0.35
β-blockers 800 (79.1) 817 (77.9) 236 (74.4) 0.11
ACE inhibitors/ARBs 263 (26.0) 330 (31.5) 159 (50.2) <0.001
Metformin 0 (0) 0 (0) 98 (30.9) 0.98
Sulfonamides 0 (0) 0 (0) 79 (24.9) 0.98
Insulin 0 (0) 0 (0) 77 (24.3) 0.98
Other anti-diabetic drugs 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (1.3) 0.98
Estimated daily dietary intakes
Energy (kJ) 8,790 ±2,560 8,900 ±2,740 8,300 ±2,680 0.06
Total fat (%TE) 31.2 ±5.4 31.4 ±5.4 32.2 ±6.2 0.02
Saturated and trans fat (%TE) 11.6 ±2.6 11.6 ±2.6 11.7 ±2.8 0.35
Monounsaturated fat (%TE) 10.1 ±1.9 10.1 ±1.9 10.5 ±2.2 0.002
Polyunsaturated fat (%TE) 7.0 ±1.9 7.0 ±2.0 7.3 ±2.3 0.07
n-6 PUFAs (g)g 13.3 ±6.3 13.6 ±6.7 13.1 ±6.6 0.96
n-3 PUFAs (g)h 3.23 ±1.54 3.25 ±1.61 3.24 ±1.67 0.89
n-3 LCPUFAs (g)i 1.30 ±1.11 1.28 ±1.05 1.32 ±1.06 0.96
n-3 LCPUFAs (%TE)i 0.56 ±0.44 0.54 ±0.40 0.60 ±0.46 0.45
Use of dietary supplements (n (%))
Fish oil 167 (16.5) 171 (16.3) 49 (15.5) 0.69
Cod liver oil 272 (26.9) 294 (28.0) 80 (25.2) 0.83
Folic acid 500 (49.4) 523 (49.9) 161 (50.8) 0.68
Vitamin B6 508 (50.2) 545 (52.0) 145 (45.7) 0.44

aDiabetes was defined as clinically diagnosed, or as having a fasting glucose ≥7.0 or a non-fasting glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L. bCalculated by using linear regression for continuous variables and logistic regression for binary variables. cMean ±SD (all such values). dReceiving medical treatment for hypertension. eCurrent smoker (self-reported, ex-smoker <1 month, or cotinine ≥85 nmol/L). fValues are medians (25th, 75th percentiles). gComposed of linoleic and arachidonic acids. hComposed of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DPA, and DHA. iComposed of EPA, DPA, and DHA. ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; n-3 LCPUFAs, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids; %TE, percentage of total energy.

Strand et al.

Strand et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:216   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-216

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