Table 2

Selected genes regulated by epigenetic factors during caloric restrictiona

Genes

Gene functions in aging

Epigenetic regulation

CR effects

References


p16INK4a

Tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell cycle and accumulates during aging

DNA methylation, histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1 and HDAC1) and histone methylation

Downregulation

[31,84]

p53

Tumor suppressor gene that induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence; increased p53 promotes aging

Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1)

Downregulation

[88-90]

H-ras

Oncogene that accelerates aging

DNA methylation

Downregulation

[30]

RUNX3

Transcription factor that plays important roles in development; increases methylation with aging

DNA methylation

Up regulation

[53,55]

Foxo

Forkhead transcription factors that control various biological functions and involve SIRT1-related longevity

Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1)

Downregulation

[91,92]

Ku70

A component of the NHEJ pathway for DSB repair that regulates apoptosis and DNA repair during aging

Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1)

Downregulation

[99,100]

PGC-1α

Regulates mitochondrial function and glucose homeostasis and interacts with SIRT1 to regulate glucose metabolism during CR

Histone acetylation (mediated by SIRT1)

Upregulation

[34,83,93,94]

hTERT

Tumor promoting gene; increased hTERT expression is correlated with telomerase activation and aging delay

Histone acetylation (mediated by HDAC1) and histone methylation

Upregulation

[31]


aCR, caloric restriction; hTERT, human telomerase reverse transcriptase; HDAC1, histone deacetylase 1; SIRT1, Sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1; NHEJ, non-homologous end joining; DSB, DNA double-strand break.

Li et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:98   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-98

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