Table 4

Characteristics of included randomized trials with effects on weight management, blood glucose and blood lipids

Author,

Year,

Country

Population,

Mean BMI (kg/m2)

Sweetener 1:

Type,

Quantity (g/d)

Sweetener 2:

Type,

Quantity (g/d)

Daily Diet

(carbohydrate/

fat/protein)

Study design,

Follow-up,

Sample size

Mean age (y),

% female

Allocation concealment,

Jadad score,

Funding


Non-caloric versus Saccharide

Reid [61]

2007

UK

General

23

Aspartame

3.56

Sucrose

42

Ad lib

RCT

4 wk

133

32

100

Unclear

1

Public

Raben [63]

2002

Denmark

Overweight

28

Aspartame/Acesulfame/

Cyclamate/Saccharin

0.48-0.67

Sucrose

125-175

Ad lib

RCT

10 wk

41

35

85

Unclear

1

Mixeda

Chantelau [62]

1985

Germany

DM1

< 25

Cyclamate

348 mg

Sucrose

24

Restricted to no other

added sweeteners however sucrose-sweetened soft drinks were discouraged

xRCT

2 4wk periods

10

Range 25-43

80

Unclear

1

-

Saccharide versus Saccharide

Okuno [68]

2010

Japan

General

23

Isomaltulose/

Sucrose

40

Sucrose

40

Ad lib

RCT

12 wk

50

53

80

Unclear

2

Private

Tudor Ngo Sock [64]

2010

Netherlands

General

19-25

Fructose

3.5 g/kg FFM

Glucose

3.5 g/kg FFM

Total and distribution of energy restricted

55/30/15%

xRCT

2 1wk periods

(2-3wk wo)

11

25

0

Unclear

1

Mixed

Yaghoobi [69]

2008

Iran

Overweight/

Obese

31

Honey

70

Sucrose

70

Ad lib

RCT

Max 30d

55

42

56

Unclear

1

Public

Boesch [70]

2001

Switzerland

General

< 25

Tagatose

45

Sucrose

45

Ad lib

xRCT

2 28d periods

(28d wo)

12

Range 21-30

0

Inadequate

2

-

Bantle [65]

2000

US

General

25

Fructose

80

(incl 17 g glucose)

Glucose

80

(incl 15 g fructose)

Total and distribution of energy restricted

55/30/15%

xRCT

2 42d periods

24

41

50

Unclear

1

Public

Luo [71]

2000

Belgium

DM2

28

FOS

20

Sucrose

20

Ad lib

xRCT

2 4wk periods

(2wk wo)

10

57

40

Unclear

1

Private

Alles [73]

1999

Netherlands

DM2

28

FOS

Saccharide

30

Glucose

Saccharide

8

Ad lib

xRCT

2 20d periods

20

59

55

Unclear

1

Mixed

Luo [72]

1996

France

General

21

FOS

20

Sucrose

20

Low-fiber diet

recommended

xRCT

2 4wk periods

(2wk wo)

12

24

0

Unclear

2

Private

Bantle [67]

1986

US

50% DM1/50% DM2

-

Sucrose

23%

Fructose

21%

Total and distribution of energy restricted

55/30/15%

xRCT

2 8d periods

24

43

54

Unclear

1

Mixed

Macdonald [66]

1973

UK

General

-

Sucrose

6.5 g/kg

Glucose

6.5 g/kg

Restricted to

1 g/kg calcium

caseinate

xRCT

2 11d periods

(2wk wo)

10

Range 20-25

40

Unclear

1

Private


UK, United Kingdom; US, United States; DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus; DM2, type 2 diabetes mellitus; HFCS, high fructose corn syrup; FOS, fructooligosaccharide; FFM, fat free mas;, xRCT, controlled crossover trial; RCT, parallel randomized controlled trial; wo, washout; max, maximum; "-" means the value was not reported in the study

aBoth public and private sources of funding

Wiebe et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:123   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-123

Open Data