Table 2

Description of included 2-hour response randomized trials

Author,

Year,

Country

Population,

Mean BMI (kg/m2)

Sweetener 1:

Type,

Quantity

Sweetener 2:

Type,

Quantity

Medium

Study design,

Follow-up,

Sample size

Mean age (y),

% female

Allocation concealment,

Jadad score,

Funding


Non-caloric vs Saccharide

Gonzalez-Ortiz [24]

2009

Mexico

General

23

Sucralose (Enterex Diabetic®)

45% once

Mixtureb

(Glucerna SR®)

50% once

Drink

xRCT

2 1d periods

(3d wo)

14

22

64

Unclear

2

-

Prat-Larquemin [22]

2000

France

General

20

Aspartame

0.27 g once

Sucrose

90 g once

Cheese

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

24

23

0

Unclear

3

Mixede

Melchior [23]

1991

France

General

21

Aspartame

80mg once

Sucrose

50 g once

Drink

xRCT

2 1d periods

10

22

70

Unclear

1

Public

Non-caloric vs Non-caloric

Horwitz [25]

1988

US

55% General/45% DM2

< 25

Aspartame

400 mg once

Saccharin

135 mg once

Unsweetened drink

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

22

41

77

Unclear

1

Private

Sugar Alcohol vs Saccharide

Rizkalla [28]

2002

France

50% General

25

50% DM2

27

Lycasin

50 g once

Glucose

50 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

12

40

0

Unclear

2

Private

Nguyen [26]

1993

France

General

-

Lycasin

20 g once

Sorbitol

20 g once

Xylitol

20 g once

Maltitol

20 g once

Glucose

20 g once

None

xRCT

5 1d periods

(1wk wo)

10

33

50

Unclear

1

Private

Wheeler [29]

1990

US

33% General

24f

33% DM2

32

33% DM1

23

HSH6075

50 g once

HSH5875

50 g once

Glucose

50 g once

None

xRCT

3 1d periods

18

47

50

Unclear

2

Mixed

Hassinger [27]

1981

Germany

DM1

-

Xylitol

30 g once

Sucrose

30 g once

Meal

xRCT

2 1d periods

14

29

-

Unclear

1

Private

Saccharide vs Saccharide

Maki [30]

2009

US

Obese

35

Trehalose

75 g once

Trehalose/Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

3 1d periods

21

50

0

Unclear

3

Private

Teff [31]

2009

US

Obese

35

Fructose

30%

Glucose

30%

Meals & Drinks

xRCT

2 2d periods

(1mo wo)

17

33

47

Unclear

1

Public

Van Can [52]

2009

Netherlands

Overweight

28

Isomaltulose

75 g once

Sucrose

75 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

10

31

20

Unclear

1

Private

Grysman [58] A

2008

Canada

General

24

Sucromalt

50 g once

HFCS42

50 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

10

28

30

Unclear

2

Private

Grysman [58] B

2008

Canada

General

24

Sucromalt

80 g once

HFCS42

80 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

10

25

50

Unclear

2

Private

Grysman [58] C

2008

Canada

General

24

Sucromalt

50 g once

HFCS42

50 g once

Glucose

50 g once

Meal

xRCT

3 1d periods

20

37

60

Unclear

2

Private

Munstedt [59]

2008

Germany

General

23

Glucose/Fructosea

155 g once

Honey

221 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods (1wk wo)

10

28

0

Unclear

2

-

Stanhope [54]

2008

US

General

25

HFCS55

25% thrice

Sucrose

25% thrice

3 Meals

xRCT

2 1d periods (1mo wo)

34

35

47

Unclear

1

Mixed

Bowen [32]

2007

Australia

Overweight/

Obese

33

Fructose

50 g once

Glucose

50 g once

Drink

xRCT

2 1d periods

(7d wo)

28

57

0

Unclear

4

Mixed

Chong [33]

2007

UK

General

25

Fructose

0.75 g/kg once

Glucose

0.75 g/kg once

Drink

xRCT

2 1d periods

(6wk wo)

14

43

43

Unclear

1

Mixed

Melanson [55]

2007

US

General

22

HFCS55

30% TID

Sucrose

30% TID

3 Meals

xRCT

2 2d periods

(6wk wo)

30

33

100

Unclear

2

Private

Visvanathan [34]

2005

Australia

General

26

Sucrose

50 g once

Fructose

50 g once

Glucose

50 g once

None

xRCT

3 1d periods

(3d wo)

10

72

60

Unclear

1

Public

Teff [35]

2004

US

General

23

Fructose

30% TID

Glucose

30% TID

3 Meals

xRCT

2 2d periods

(1mo wo)

12

25

100

Unclear

1

Mixed

Qin [53]

2003

Japan

General

23

Maltose

75 g QIDx4h

Sucrose

75 g QIDx4h

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

10

22

0

Unclear

1

-

Vozzo [36]

2002

Australia

50% IGT/50% DM2

31

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(5d wo)

20

56

40

Unclear

1

Mixed

Spiller [37]

1998

US

General

-

Sucrose

90 g once

Glucose

90 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

10

29

50

Unclear

1

Private

Stewart [38]

1997

Canada

General

20-27

Fructose

30 g SID

Glucose

33.5 g SID

Meal

xRCT

2 1d periods

13

25

0

Unclear

1

Private

Blaak [39]

1996

Netherlands

General

-

Sucrose

75 g once

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

3 1d periods

(1wk wo)

10

28

0

Unclear

1

Mixed

Fukagawa [40]

1995

US

General

-

Fructose

75 g onced

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

16

47

38

Unclear

1

Public

Schwarz [41]

1992

Switzerland

43% General

21

57% Overweight

30

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

Meal

xRCT

2 1d periods

(4d wo)

23

25

100

Unclear

1

Mixed

Bukar [42]

1990

US

DM2

-

HFCS

27 g (12.2 g Fructose/14.8 g Glucose) once

Sucrose

33.5 g once

Glucose

50 g once

HFCS: Tofu frozen dessert

Sucrose: Ice cream

Glucose: None

xRCT

3 1d periods

(2d wo)

12

51

50

Unclear

1

-

Georgakopoulos [43]

1990

Greece

General

-

Sucrose

20 g once

Glucose

20 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(3d wo)

17

Range 25-40

29

Unclear

1

-

Kawai [56]

1989

Japan

50% General

20

50% DM2

23

Isomaltulose

50 g once

Sucrose

50 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(2d wo)

20

39

30

Unclear

1

Mixed

Schwarz [44]

1989

Switzerland

General

21

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

Drink

xRCT

2 1d periods

(4d wo)

20

23

50

Unclear

1

Private

Simonson [45]

1988

Switzerland

DM2/General/Obesef

-

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

37

53

51

Unclear

1

Mixed

Jansen [46]

1987

Netherlands

General

-

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(1wk wo)

20

52

50

Unclear

1

Public

Tappy [47]

1986

Switzerland

General

-

Fructose

75 g once

Glucose

75 g once

None

xRCT

2 1d periods

(2d wo)

10

27c

65c

Unclear

1

Mixed

Erkelens [57]

1985

Netherlands

33% Generalf/33% DM2/17% DM1/17% insulin infusion DM1

-

Honey

(22% Glucose/26% Fructose) SID

Sucrose

49% SID

White bread & Cheese

xRCT

2 1d periods

(2d wo)

24

47

46

Unclear

1

Mixed

Samanta [48]

1985

UK

46% General/31% DM1/23% DM2

-

Honey

26 g once

Sucrose

26 g once

Glucose

26 g once

None

xRCT

3 1d periods

26

40

-

Unclear

1

-

Bantle [49]

1983

US

31% General/38% DM1/31% DM2

-

Sucrose

42 g once

Fructose

42 g once

Glucose

42 g once

Meal

xRCT

3 1d periods

32

41

56

Unclear

2

Mixed

Crapo [50]

1982

US

38% General/23% IGTf/38% DM2

-

Sucrose

63 g once

Sucrose

52 g once

Fructose

63 g once

Fructose

52 g once

Glucose

69.9 g once

Sucrose & Fructose 63 g: cake

Sucrose & Fructose 52 g: ice cream

None

xRCT

5 1d periods

(1d wo)

26

43

42

Unclear

1

Mixed

Mann [51]

1971

South Africa

General

-

Sucrose

60 g once

Glucose

60 g once

Meal

xRCT

2 1d periods

(2d wo)

19

Range 20-58

0

Unclear

1

Public


DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus; DM2, type 2 diabetes mellitus; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; UK, United Kingdom; US, United States; HFCS, high fructose corn syrup; FOS, fructooligosaccharide; SID, once a day; BID, twice a day; TID, three times a day; QID, four times a day; carb, carbohydrate; xRCT, randomized crossover trial; RCT, parallel randomized controlled trial; wo, washout; max, maximum "-" means the value was not reported in the study, and not described

a'comparable Honey'

bcontains isomaltulose, fructose, Sucromalt® (sucrose, maltose), and FOS

capproximate because it includes 7 people from other studies written up in the same article

dfactorial trial including 300 mg caffeine or 300 mg vitamin C

eboth public and private sources of funding

fgroup of participants dropped due to low group sample size

Wiebe et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:123   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-123

Open Data