Table 1

Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analyses
Source Age mean (SD), ya Intervention and control description Co-intervention Duration, mo Adherence,% Dropouts,%
De Greef et al. 2011-1b[24] 68.3 (8.2) Intervention: a pedometer-based PA program: received a pedometer, set personal goal, instructed to increase self-efficacy and received physical advice. Diary use; Self-set goal 3 Not stated 2.3
66.0 (11.1) Control: received usual care 8.3
De Greef et al. 2010 [25] 61.3 (6.3) Intervention: a cognitive-behavioral program: received a pedometer; instructed to increase self-efficacy and set new goals; motivated to achieve. Diary use; Self-set goal 3 75 10
61.3 (6.9) Control: received usual care 9.5
Tudor-Locke et al. 2004 [26] 52.8 (5.7) Intervention: a First Step program: received a pedometer, instructed for self-monitoring and goal-setting, and received postcards for thanks. Diary use; Self-set goal 4 75 20
52.5 (4.8) Control: only received postcards for thanks 23.3
Piette et al. 2011e[27] 55.1 ( 9.4) Intervention: received a telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy, including a pedometer-based PA program, and instructed to progress toward cognitive behavioral therapy goals. Diary use 9 Not stated 15.7
56.0 (10.9) Control: received an enhanced usual care 12.6
De Greef et al. 2011-2 [28] 62 (9) (total) Intervention: a pedometer-based behavioral modification program with telephone support: received a pedometer, and seven calls for goal-setting, self-monitoring and instructed to increase self-efficacy. Diary use; 10,000 steps/d 3 Not stated 3.3
Control: received usual care 6.3
Kirk et al. 2009c, e[29] 62.1 (10.2) Intervention: received a pedometer, a 12-week walking plan and strategies to increase self-efficacy, given physical consultation and follow-up phone calls. No diary or goal use 6 Not stated 9.1
59.2 (10.4) Control: received standard care and follow-up phone calls 8.6
Plotnikoff et al. 2013d, e[30] 61.8 (11.8) Intervention: received a pedometer, PA guidelines and stage-based, print materials for behavior change. Diary use 12 80 24.9
61.0 (11.7) Control: received standard PA education materials 10.6
Engel et al. 2006 [31] 60.5 (7.34) Intervention: received a pedometer and coaching (which included education, behavior-change strategies and support), instructed to increase self-efficacy, and set steps/d goals. Diary use; 3,500 to 5,500 steps/d 3 Not stated 12 (total)
64 (6.76) Control: received coaching only, instructed to increase self-efficacy, and set goals on time spent walking per day
Bjørgaas et al. 2008 [18] 56.4 (11.0) Intervention: received a pedometer, encouraged to increase steps/d and set goals for increasing PA. Diary use; Increase steps/d 6 Not stated 28
61.2 (9.7) Control: encouraged to increase the average daily time on walking and set goals 32.4
Andrews et al. 2011e[32] 60.0 (9.7) Intervention: received intensive diet intervention, a pedometer, and motivating literature; instructed to walk more for five weeks, and then maintain. Diary use 6 90 1.2
60.1 (10.2) Control: received intensive diet intervention 0.4
Diedrich et al. 2010e[33] 56.7 (13.6) Intervention: attended DSMEP, and received a pedometer, a book of Manpo-kei (mainly for motivation). No diary or goal use 3 Not stated 38 (total)
54.9 (9.8) Control: attended DSMEP

DSMEP, Diabetes Self-Management Education Program; PA, physical activity; steps/d, steps per day; SD, standard deviation; mo, month.

aIn studies with 2 interventions, age data represent combined mean (SD) of each intervention group.

bTwo intervention group differed in delivery strategy (one was by individual consultation, the other one was by group counseling).

cTwo intervention group differed in delivery strategy (one was by person, the other one was in written form).

dTwo intervention group differed in telephone counselling (one was with, the other one was not).

eGoals were not specified in those studies.

Qiu et al.

Qiu et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:36   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-36

Open Data