# Table 1

Student characteristics, self-ratings and scores in the electrocardiogram (ECG) entry examination as well as the summative end-of-module examination the six study groups.

Term

Winter 2008/2009

Winter 2008/2009

Summer 2009

Summer 2009

Winter 2009/2010

Summer 2010

ANOVA/χ2 test

Number of students

82

80

81

77

148

66

Teaching format

Lectures

PT

Lectures

PT

SDL

SDL

Assessment consequences

Summative

Summative

Formative

Formative

Summative

Formative

Age, years

23.9 (2.4) ± 0.5

24.1 (2.7) ± 0.6

24.0 (1.8) ± 0.4

24.1 (2.4) ± 0.5

24.5 (2.6) ± 0.4

24.6 (2.7) ± 0.7

F = 0.920; P = 0.479

Percentage score achieved in the ECG entry examination

26.7 (14.0) ± 3.1

26.8 (13.6) ± 3.0

20.0 (12.8) ± 2.9

20.8 (12.6) ± 2.9

25.2 (14.3) ± 2.4

24.0 (13.8) ± 3.4

F = 3.747; P = 0.002

Percentage score in the summative end-of-module module examination

80.3 (8.2) ± 1.8

79.6 (8.6) ± 1.9

74.6 (8.5) ± 1.9

76.6 (7.3) ± 1.7

79.8 (9.4) ± 1.6

77.2 (9.9) ± 2.4

F = 5.794; P <0.001

Female sex, % (n)

59.8 (49)

58.8 (47)

58.0 (47)

57.1 (44)

52.7 (78)

63.6 (42)

χ2 = 2.646; P = 0.754

'I need some external pressure in order to be motivated to learn', % (n) agreement

45.1 (37)

38.8 (31)

44.4 (36)

40.3 (31)

31.8 (47)

33.3 (22)

χ2 = 6.415; P = 0.268

'Preferably, I learn those things that will be tested in exams', % (n) agreement

62.2 (51)

51.3 (41)

64.2 (52)

54.5 (42)

52.7 (78)

48.5 (32)

χ2 = 6.364; P = 0.272

'In my view, the electrocardiogram (ECG) as an important diagnostic tool', % (n) agreement

98.8 (81)

98.8 (79)

95.1 (77)

96.1 (74)

98.6 (146)

93.9 (62)

χ2 = 6.857; P = 0.231

'I am looking forward to learning something about ECG interpretation in this module', % (n) agreement

93.9 (77)

92.5 (74)

87.7 (71)

89.6 (69)

87.2 (129)

87.9 (58)

χ2 = 3.801; P = 0.578

'I have read a book on ECG interpretation before', % (n) agreement

32.9 (27)

25.0 (20)

12.3 (10)

15.6 (12)

20.3 (30)

13.6 (9)

χ2 = 15.251; P = 0.009

'I have already learned some bits and pieces about the ECG prior to this module', % (n) agreement

8.5 (7)

7.5 (6)

2.5 (2)

7.8 (6)

3.4 (5)

4.5 (3)

χ2 = 5.741; P = 0.332

'I expect to be taught all the relevant facts and skills about ECG interpretation during the teaching sessions of the cardiovascular module', % (n) agreement

74.4 (61)

85.0 (68)

84.0 (68)

90.9 (70)

88.5 (131)

89.4 (59)

χ2 = 12.098; P = 0.033

Data are presented as mean (SD) ± standard error or % (n) as appropriate. ANOVA = analysis of variance; PT = peer teaching; SDL = self-directed learning.

Raupach et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:61   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-61