Table 1

List of common serological tumor markers in clinical use that contain a glycan componenta

Biomarker

Type of detection

Cancer type(s)

Clinical applications

References


AFP

Protein and core fucosylation (for AFP-L3)

Germ-cell hepatoma; non-seminomatous testicular carcinoma

Diagnosis, staging. detecting recurrence, monitoring therapy

[153,154]


hCG

Protein alone

Testicular

Diagnosis;staging; detecting recurrence; monitoring therapy

[154,155]


CA125

Protein alone

Ovarian

Prognosis; detecting recurrence; monitoring therapy

[154,156]


CA15-3

Sialylated O-glycan on MUC1

Breast

Monitoring therapy

[157-159]


CA19-9

SLe on mucin glycoproteins and gangliosidesa

Pancreatic

Monitoring therapy

[160,161]


CEA

Protein alone

Colon

Detecting recurrence; monitoring therapy

[154,157,161]


HER2

Protein alone

Breast

Therapy selection

[157,162,163]


PSA

Protein alone

Prostate

Screening; diagnosis (with digital rectal examination)

[154,164]


Thyroglobulin

Protein alone

Thyroid

Monitoring

[165,166]


CA27-29

MUC1 protein alone

Breast

Monitoring

[161,167]


aModified and adapted from Kulasingam and Diamandis [168]. AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; CA, carcinoma antigen 15-3; CA 19-9, carbohydrate antigen 19-9; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; HER, herceptin; hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; MRM, multiple reaction monitoring; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; SLe, sialyl Lewis antigen.

Kuzmanov et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:31   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-31

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