Table 1

Studies examining alterations in the expression of genes involved in inflammation

Citation

Type of study

Sample

Gene

Clinical assessments

Main findings


Tsao et al. 2006 [22]

Case-control and follow-up

20 MDD

22 Controls

5-HTT

IL-1β

IL-6

TNF-α

IFN-α

Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria

HDRS

Higher expression of 5-HTT, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-α in patients with MDD compared with controls. Significant decreased in expression of 5-HTT and IFN-α after 3 months of fluoxetine treatment.

Cattaneo et al. 2012 [23]

Case-control and follow-up

74 MDD

34 Controls

IL-1α

IL-1β

IL-4

IL-6

IL-7

IL-8

IL-10

MIF

TNF-α

Diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria

SCAN

Higher expression of IL-1β, IL-6, MIF and TNF-α and lower expression of IL-4 in patients with MDD compared with controls.

IL-β, TNF-α and MIF expression predicted antidepressant response.

Significant decrease in IL-6 expression after 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment (escitalopram or nortriptyline) in responders only.

Suzuki et al. 2010 [25]

Case-control

43 MDD

43 Controls

ApoER2

VLDLR

Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria

HAM-D

BPRS

Lower expression of ApoER2 in patients with MDD compared with controls.

No significant difference in expression of VLDLR.

Galecki et al. 2012 [29]

Case-control

181 rDD

149 Controls

COX-2

MPO

NOS2A

PLA2G2A

Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria

or ICD-10 criteria

CIDI

Higher expression of COX-2, MPO,

NOS2A and PLA2G2A in patients with rDD compared with controls.

Weigelt et al. 2011 [33]

Case-control

24 MDD

22 BPD

45 Controls

TREM-1

DAP12

PU.1

ATF3

EGR3

MXD1

MAFF

NAB2

Diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria

SCID-I

Higher expression of TREM-1 and NAB2 in patients with BPD only.

Higher expression of PU.1 in patients with MDD and a trend for higher expression of TREM-1.

Higher expression of ATF3, EGR3, MAFF and MXD1 in patients with both MDD and BPD.

No significant difference in expression of DAP12 in either patient group.


BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; BPD: bipolar disorder; BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; CIDI: Composite International Diagnostic Interview; DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition; HAM-D: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HDRS: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases - 10th revision; MDD: major depressive disorder; rDD: recurrent depressive disorder; SCAN: Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, SCID-I: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder..

Hepgul et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:28   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-28

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