Is there a link between the extracranial venous system and central nervous system pathology?
Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
MRI Clinical Translational Research Center, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
BMC Medicine 2013, 11:259 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-259Published: 17 December 2013
The extracranial venous system is complex and variable between individuals. Until recently, these variations were acknowledged as developmental variants and were not considered pathological findings. However, in the last decade, the presence and severity of uni- or bi-lateral jugular venous reflux (JVR) was linked to several central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as transient global amnesia, transient monocular blindness, cough headache, primary exertional headache and, most recently, to Alzheimer's disease. The most recent introduction of a composite criteria-based vascular condition named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), which was originally linked to multiple sclerosis, increased the interest in better understanding the role of the extracranial venous system in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. The ultimate cause-consequence relationship between these conditions and CNS disorders has not been firmly established and further research is needed. The purpose of this article collection in BMC Medicine and BMC Neurology is to synthesize current concepts and most recent findings concerning the evaluation, etiology, pathophysiology and clinical relevance of the potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in the pathology of multiple CNS disorders and in aging.