Venous involvement in neurological disorders and aging
The extracranial venous system is complex and variable between individuals. Until recently, these variations were acknowledged as developmental variants and were not considered pathological findings. However, in the last decade, the presence and severity of uni- or bi-lateral jugular venous reflux have been linked to several central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as transient global amnesia, transient monocular blindness, cough headache, primary exertional headache and most recently to Alzheimer's disease. The most recent introduction of a composite criteria-based vascular condition named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) that was originally linked to multiple sclerosis increased the interest in better understanding of the role of the extracranial venous system in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. The ultimate cause-consequence relationship between these conditions and CNS disorders has not been firmly established and further research is needed. This article collection in BMC Medicine and BMC Neurology aims to synthesize the current concepts and most recent findings concerning the evaluation, etiology, pathophysiology and clinical relevance of the potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in the pathology of multiple CNS disorders and in aging. All articles in this cross-journal collection have been independently prepared by the authors and have been subject to the standard peer-review processes of the journals.