Table 4

Summary of details regarding each included study.

Study

Design

Participants

Neuromuscular warm-up program

Control Group

Outcome


Mandelbaum et al. [26]

CCT

1,041 female soccer players, aged 14 to 18 years

Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Programme: three basic warm-up exercises, five stretching exercises for the trunk and lower extremities, three strengthening exercises, five plyometric exercises and three soccer-specific agility drills. Performed before matches and training, 20 minutes, for two years

Normal warm-up strategy

ACL injuries

Pfeiffer et al. [27]

CCT

1,439 female soccer, basketball and volleyball players, aged 14 to 18 years

Knee Ligament Injury Prevention Programme: four progressive phases of jumping and landing forwards and backwards, two- and one-footed drills, plyometric and agility training. Performed either before or after training sessions twice a week, 20 minutes, for two consecutive seasons

Normal warm-up strategy

ACL injuries

Gilchrist et al. [28]

RCT

1,435 female football players, average age 19.9 years

Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance Program: Three basic warm-up exercises, five stretching exercises for the trunk and lower extremities, three strengthening exercises, five plyometric exercises and three soccer-specific agility drills. Before training, 20 minutes three times a week for 12 weeks

Normal warm-up strategy

Undefined knee and ACL injuries

Kiani et al. [29]

CCT

1,506 female football players, aged 13 to 19 years

The 'HarmoKnee' program: warm-up, muscle activation, balance, strength, core stability exercises. Performed twice a week preseason (three months), once a week during in-season training session (six months), total duration 20 to 25 minutes

Normal warm-up strategy

All new knee injuries

LaBella et al. [30]

RCT

1,558 female football and basketball players, average age 16 years

Knee Injury Prevention Program: combining progressive strengthening, plyometric, balance and agility exercises. In season for one year. Total duration 20 minutes before team practices, an abbreviated version with dynamic motion exercises only before games

Normal warm-up strategy

Gradual-onset lower extremity injuries, acute-onset non-contact lower extremity injuries, non-contact knee, ACL and ankle sprains

Soligard et al. [31]

RCT

1,982 female football players, aged 13 to 17 years

The '11+': 10 exercises including slow running, active stretching, controlled contact, exercises for strength, balance, jumping and soccer-specific agility drills. Before training, 20 minutes, only running exercises before match, for eight months

Normal warm-up strategy

Overall and overuse lower limb injuries, groin, posterior and anterior thigh injuries, undefined knee, MTSS and undefined ankle injuries

Steffen et al. [32]

RCT

2,020 female football players, aged 13 to 17 years

The '11': 10 exercises for core stability, balance, dynamic stabilization and eccentric hamstring strength. Two months preseason, six months in-season before training, 20 minutes for 15 consecutive training sessions then once a week thereafter

Normal warm-up strategy

Overall lower limb injuries, groin and thigh injuries, undefined knee and ACL injuries, and undefined ankle injuries

Coppack et al. [33]

RCT

1,502 male and female army recruits, aged 17 to 25 years

Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme: warm-up consisted of eight exercises closed chain strengthening exercises, 10 to 14 repetitions each; warm-down involved four stretching exercises, three repetitions. Performed at each training session (mean = seven per week), 15 minutes, for 14 weeks

Normal warm-up strategy (running, stretching, strengthening)

AKP

Brushøj et al. [34]

RCT

1,020 female and male army recruits aged 19 to 26 years

Prevention Training Programme: Five exercises for strengthening, balance, stretching performed in three sets of five to 25 repetitions. Before military training, 15 minutes, three times a week for 12 weeks

Strategy for the upper body

Overall and overuse lower limb injuries, AKP, patella tendinopathy, ITBFS, MTSS, ankle sprain and Achilles injuries.


ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; AKP, anterior knee pain; CCT, controlled clinical trial; ITBFS, iliotibial band friction syndrome; MTSS, medial tibial stress syndrome; RCT, randomized controlled trial.

Herman et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:75   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-75

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