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Advances in Sports Nutrition, Exercise and Medicine

The field of sports medicine encompasses a wide variety of disciplines, from orthopaedics and physiotherapy, to psychiatry and public health. It seeks not only to improve levels of physical fitness and performance, but also aims to further advance the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Progression in this field of medicine is greatly anticipated.

This article collection is a cross-journal collaboration covering recent advances in sports medicine that have both broad interest and high clinical relevance to athletes, physicians, general practitioners, sports and exercise medicine specialists as well as sport nutritionists, and may also have wider implications.

We are now seeking submissions of original research, in-depth reviews, opinions and debates offering novel insights into the clinical utility of all aspects of sports medicine.

Articles for inclusion will be published in a participating journal. These are BMC Medicine, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, SMARTT, Harm Reduction Journal and Extreme Physiology & Medicine. If you would like your work to be considered, please send a presubmission enquiry to (please indicate which Journal you are enquiring about).

Collection published: 19 July 2012
Last updated: 17 January 2014

  1. Participation and performance trends have been investigated in a single stage Ironman triathlon such as the ‘Ironman Hawaii,’ but not for a multi-stage ultra-triathlon such as the ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ covering a ...

    Authors: Dimirela Meili, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers
    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:25
  2. Almost nothing is known about the medical aspects of runners doing a transcontinental ultramarathon over several weeks. The results of differentiated measurements of changes in body composition during the Tran...

    Authors: Uwe HW Schütz, Christian Billich, Kathrin König, Christian Würslin, Heike Wiedelbach, Hans-Jürgen Brambs and Jürgen Machann
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:122
  3. The aim of the present study was to compare the trends in participation, performance and age of finishers in ‘Badwater’ and ‘Spartathlon’ as two of the toughest ultramarathons in the world of more than 200 km ...

    Authors: Kristina da Fonseca-Engelhardt, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers and Thomas Rosemann
    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:15
  4. Olympic class sailing poses physiological challenges similar to other endurance sports such as cycling or running, with sport specific challenges of limited access to nutrition and hydration during competition...

    Authors: Evan JH Lewis, Sarah J Fraser, Scott G Thomas and Greg D Wells
    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013 10:11
  5. Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) ...

    Authors: Bill Campbell, Colin Wilborn, Paul La Bounty, Lem Taylor, Mike T Nelson, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout, Stephen Schmitz, Rick Collins, Doug S Kalman, Jose Antonio and Richard B Kreider
    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013 10:1
  6. Opioid receptors are possibly involved in the perception of exertion and the ventilatory response to exercise. We compared incremental cycling exercise in conditions of normoxia and hypoxia (11% O2) after injecti...

    Authors: Laurent Koglin and Bengt Kayser
    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:1
  7. During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possi...

    Authors: Wolfgang Freund, Sonja Faust, Frank Birklein, Christian Gaser, Arthur P Wunderlich, Marguerite Müller, Christian Billich, Markus S Juchems, Bernd L Schmitz, Georg Grön and Uwe H Schütz
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:170
  8. Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass.

    Authors: Hugo Olmedillas, Alejandro González-Agüero, Luis A Moreno, José A Casajus and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:168
  9. Musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) are widely prevalent in present-day society, with resultant high healthcare costs and substantial negative effects on patient health and quality of life. The main aim of this ...

    Authors: Kåre Birger Hagen, Hanne Dagfinrud, Rikke Helene Moe, Nina Østerås, Ingvild Kjeken, Margreth Grotle and Geir Smedslund
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:167
  10. Endurance exercise capacity diminishes under hot environmental conditions. Time to exhaustion can be increased by lowering body temperature prior to exercise (pre-cooling). This systematic literature review sy...

    Authors: Paul R Jones, Christian Barton, Dylan Morrissey, Nicola Maffulli and Stephanie Hemmings
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:166
  11. The purpose of this study was to investigate participation and performance changes in the multistage ultramarathon ‘Marathon des Sables’ from 2003 to 2012.

    Authors: Christoph Knoth, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers
    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:13
  12. The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study ...

    Authors: Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers
    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:5
  13. Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evalua...

    Authors: Kyle J Hackney, Summer B Cook, Timothy J Fairchild and Lori L Ploutz-Snyder
    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:3
  14. The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence o...

    Authors: Michael D Kennedy, Robyn Fischer, Kristine Fairbanks, Lauren Lefaivre, Lauren Vickery, Janelle Molzan and Eric Parent
    Citation: Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:26
  15. The TransEurope FootRace 2009 (TEFR09) was one of the longest transcontinental ultramarathons with an extreme endurance physical load of running nearly 4,500 km in 64 days. The aim of this study was to assess ...

    Authors: Uwe HW Schütz, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Beat Knechtle, Jürgen Machann, Heike Wiedelbach, Martin Ehrhardt, Wolfgang Freund, Stefan Gröninger, Horst Brunner, Ingo Schulze, Hans-Jürgen Brambs and Christian Billich
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:78
  16. It is recognised that regular physical activity and a high level of fitness are powerful predictors of positive health outcomes. There is a long and rich history of significant feats of human endurance with so...

    Authors: Andrew Murray and Ricardo JS Costa
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:76
  17. Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular war...

    Authors: Katherine Herman, Christian Barton, Peter Malliaras and Dylan Morrissey
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:75
  18. London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health lega...

    Authors: Garry A Tew, Robert J Copeland and Simon H Till
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:74
  19. The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high co...

    Authors: Bengt Kayser and Barbara Broers
    Citation: Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:33
  20. Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help ...

    Authors: Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex Owoeye, Ashiyat Kehinde Akodu, Bayonle Matt Oladokun and Sunday Rufus Akinwumi Akinbo
    Citation: Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:15
  21. The only three randomized trials on the treatment of MTSS were all performed in military populations. The treatment options investigated in this study were not previously examined in athletes. This study inves...

    Authors: Maarten Hendrik Moen, Leonoor Holtslag, Eric Bakker, Carl Barten, Adam Weir, Johannes L Tol and Frank Backx
    Citation: Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:12
  22. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries continue to present in epidemic-like proportions, carrying significant short- and longer-term debilitative effects. With females suffering these injuries at a higher r...

    Authors: Mélanie L Beaulieu and Scott G McLean
    Citation: Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:10
  23. Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in inj...

    Authors: Daniel S Moran, Yuval Heled, Yael Arbel, Eran Israeli, Aharon S Finestone, Rachel K Evans and Ran Yanovich
    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 9:6
  24. Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been ...

    Authors: Douglas S Kalman, Samantha Feldman, Diane R Krieger and Richard J Bloomer
    Citation: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 9:1
  25. Gymnasts are exposed to a high incidence of impact landings due to the execution of repeated dismount performances. Biomechanical research can help inform recent discussions surrounding a proposed rule change ...

    Authors: Marianne JR Gittoes and Gareth Irwin
    Citation: Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:4