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Advances in Sports Nutrition, Exercise and Medicine

The field of sports medicine encompasses a wide variety of disciplines, from orthopaedics and physiotherapy, to psychiatry and public health. It seeks not only to improve levels of physical fitness and performance, but also aims to further advance the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Progression in this field of medicine is greatly anticipated.

This article collection is a cross-journal collaboration covering recent advances in sports medicine that have both broad interest and high clinical relevance to athletes, physicians, general practitioners, sports and exercise medicine specialists as well as sport nutritionists, and may also have wider implications.

We are now seeking submissions of original research, in-depth reviews, opinions and debates offering novel insights into the clinical utility of all aspects of sports medicine.

Articles for inclusion will be published in a participating journal. These are BMC Medicine, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, SMARTT, Harm Reduction Journal and Extreme Physiology & Medicine. If you would like your work to be considered, please send a presubmission enquiry to (please indicate which Journal you are enquiring about).

Collection published: 19 July 2012
Last updated: 17 January 2014

  1. Research

    Participation and performance trends in ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ from 1983 to 2012

    Participation and performance trends have been investigated in a single stage Ironman triathlon such as the ‘Ironman Hawaii,’ but not for a multi-stage ultra-triathlon such as the ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ covering a ...

    Dimirela Meili, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:25

    Published on: 1 August 2013

  2. Research article

    Characteristics, changes and influence of body composition during a 4486 km transcontinental ultramarathon: results from the Transeurope Footrace mobile whole body MRI-project

    Almost nothing is known about the medical aspects of runners doing a transcontinental ultramarathon over several weeks. The results of differentiated measurements of changes in body composition during the Tran...

    Uwe HW Schütz, Christian Billich, Kathrin König, Christian Würslin, Heike Wiedelbach, Hans-Jürgen Brambs and Jürgen Machann

    BMC Medicine 2013 11:122

    Published on: 8 May 2013

  3. Research

    Participation and performance trends in ultra-endurance running races under extreme conditions - ‘Spartathlon’ versus ‘Badwater’

    The aim of the present study was to compare the trends in participation, performance and age of finishers in ‘Badwater’ and ‘Spartathlon’ as two of the toughest ultramarathons in the world of more than 200 km ...

    Kristina da Fonseca-Engelhardt, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers and Thomas Rosemann

    Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:15

    Published on: 1 May 2013

  4. Research article

    Changes in hydration status of elite Olympic class sailors in different climates and the effects of different fluid replacement beverages

    Olympic class sailing poses physiological challenges similar to other endurance sports such as cycling or running, with sport specific challenges of limited access to nutrition and hydration during competition...

    Evan JH Lewis, Sarah J Fraser, Scott G Thomas and Greg D Wells

    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013 10:11

    Published on: 21 February 2013

  5. Review

    International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) ...

    Bill Campbell, Colin Wilborn, Paul La Bounty, Lem Taylor, Mike T Nelson, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout, Stephen Schmitz, Rick Collins, Doug S Kalman, Jose Antonio and Richard B Kreider

    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013 10:1

    Published on: 3 January 2013

  6. Research article

    Substantial and reversible brain gray matter reduction but no acute brain lesions in ultramarathon runners: experience from the TransEurope-FootRace Project

    During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possi...

    Wolfgang Freund, Sonja Faust, Frank Birklein, Christian Gaser, Arthur P Wunderlich, Marguerite Müller, Christian Billich, Markus S Juchems, Bernd L Schmitz, Georg Grön and Uwe H Schütz

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:170

    Published on: 21 December 2012

  7. Research article

    Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

    Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass.

    Hugo Olmedillas, Alejandro González-Agüero, Luis A Moreno, José A Casajus and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:168

    Published on: 20 December 2012

  8. Research article

    Exercise therapy for bone and muscle health: an overview of systematic reviews

    Musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) are widely prevalent in present-day society, with resultant high healthcare costs and substantial negative effects on patient health and quality of life. The main aim of this ...

    Kåre Birger Hagen, Hanne Dagfinrud, Rikke Helene Moe, Nina Østerås, Ingvild Kjeken, Margreth Grotle and Geir Smedslund

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:167

    Published on: 19 December 2012

  9. Research article

    Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review

    Endurance exercise capacity diminishes under hot environmental conditions. Time to exhaustion can be increased by lowering body temperature prior to exercise (pre-cooling). This systematic literature review sy...

    Paul R Jones, Christian Barton, Dylan Morrissey, Nicola Maffulli and Stephanie Hemmings

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:166

    Published on: 18 December 2012

  10. Research

    Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study ...

    Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:5

    Published on: 1 October 2012

  11. Research

    Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat

    Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evalua...

    Kyle J Hackney, Summer B Cook, Timothy J Fairchild and Lori L Ploutz-Snyder

    Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:3

    Published on: 4 September 2012

  12. Research

    Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

    The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence o...

    Michael D Kennedy, Robyn Fischer, Kristine Fairbanks, Lauren Lefaivre, Lauren Vickery, Janelle Molzan and Eric Parent

    Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:26

    Published on: 23 July 2012

  13. Technical advance

    The Transeurope Footrace Project: longitudinal data acquisition in a cluster randomized mobile MRI observational cohort study on 44 endurance runners at a 64-stage 4,486km transcontinental ultramarathon

    The TransEurope FootRace 2009 (TEFR09) was one of the longest transcontinental ultramarathons with an extreme endurance physical load of running nearly 4,500 km in 64 days. The aim of this study was to assess ...

    Uwe HW Schütz, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Beat Knechtle, Jürgen Machann, Heike Wiedelbach, Martin Ehrhardt, Wolfgang Freund, Stefan Gröninger, Horst Brunner, Ingo Schulze, Hans-Jürgen Brambs and Christian Billich

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:78

    Published on: 19 July 2012

  14. Research article

    The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular war...

    Katherine Herman, Christian Barton, Peter Malliaras and Dylan Morrissey

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:75

    Published on: 19 July 2012

  15. Editorial

    Born to run. Studying the limits of human performance

    It is recognised that regular physical activity and a high level of fitness are powerful predictors of positive health outcomes. There is a long and rich history of significant feats of human endurance with so...

    Andrew Murray and Ricardo JS Costa

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:76

    Published on: 19 July 2012

  16. Editorial

    Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health lega...

    Garry A Tew, Robert J Copeland and Simon H Till

    BMC Medicine 2012 10:74

    Published on: 19 July 2012

  17. Commentary

    The Olympics and harm reduction?

    The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high co...

    Bengt Kayser and Barbara Broers

    Harm Reduction Journal 2012 9:33

    Published on: 13 July 2012

  18. Research

    Incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria

    Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help ...

    Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex Owoeye, Ashiyat Kehinde Akodu, Bayonle Matt Oladokun and Sunday Rufus Akinwumi Akinbo

    Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:15

    Published on: 4 May 2012

  19. Research

    The treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a randomized clinical trial

    The only three randomized trials on the treatment of MTSS were all performed in military populations. The treatment options investigated in this study were not previously examined in athletes. This study inves...

    Maarten Hendrik Moen, Leonoor Holtslag, Eric Bakker, Carl Barten, Adam Weir, Johannes L Tol and Frank Backx

    Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:12

    Published on: 30 March 2012

  20. Review

    Sex-dimorphic landing mechanics and their role within the noncontact ACL injury mechanism: evidence, limitations and directions

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries continue to present in epidemic-like proportions, carrying significant short- and longer-term debilitative effects. With females suffering these injuries at a higher r...

    Mélanie L Beaulieu and Scott G McLean

    Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:10

    Published on: 15 March 2012

  21. Research article

    Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in inj...

    Daniel S Moran, Yuval Heled, Yael Arbel, Eran Israeli, Aharon S Finestone, Rachel K Evans and Ran Yanovich

    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 9:6

    Published on: 13 March 2012

  22. Research article

    Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men

    Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been ...

    Douglas S Kalman, Samantha Feldman, Diane R Krieger and Richard J Bloomer

    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 9:1

    Published on: 18 January 2012