Table 1

Adjuvants in use or being tested for use in human vaccines

Adjuvant

Composition

Current status

References


Aluminum salts (alum)

Aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate non-crystalline gels

In use in vaccines against DT, DPT, HBV, Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningococcal and HPV infections

[94]

MF59

Oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion

In use in influenza vaccine (Europe); in trials for malarial, hepatitis C and HIV vaccine systems

[18,95-99]

MPL

Non-toxic derivative of LPS

Used in various trials in combination with oil (squalene)-in-water emulsions for malaria and leishmaniasis or in liposomal formulation

[87,100]

QS21

Purified fraction of Quil A

Trialed alone and in combination with MPL (AS02, AS01) for malaria, influenza and cancers

[87]

ISCOMS

Liposomes containing QS21

Trials for influenza vaccines

[101,102]

AS01

Liposomal formulation containing MPL and QS21

Trials for malaria vaccines (a more effective formulation than AS03 and AS04)

[87]

AS02

Oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion of MPL and QS21

Trials for malaria, HBV and TB vaccines

[103]

AS03

Oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion

Trials for influenza vaccines

[20,21]

AS04

Aluminum hydroxide and MPL

Trials for HBV and HPV vaccines

[104,105]

MPL-SE

MPL in a oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion

Trials for leishmaniasis vaccines

[100]


Abbreviations: DPT, Diphtheria pertussis tetanus toxoid; DT, Diphtheria toxoid; HBV, Hepatitis B virus; Hib, Haemophilus influenzae, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HPV, human papilloma virus; ISCOMs, immune stimulating complexes; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MPL, monophosphoryl lipid A; TB, tuberculosis.

McKee et al. BMC Biology 2010 8:37   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-37

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