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Glycemic control among patients in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving oral drugs or injectables

Li-Nong Ji1*, Ju-Ming Lu2, Xiao-Hui Guo3, Wen-Ying Yang4, Jian-Ping Weng5, Wei-Ping Jia6, Da-Jin Zou7, Zhi-Guang Zhou8, De-Min Yu9, Jie Liu10, Zhong-Yan Shan11, Yu-Zhi Yang12, Ren-Ming Hu13, Da-Long Zhu14, Li-Yong Yang15, Li Chen16, Zhi-Gang Zhao17, Qi-Fu Li18, Hao-Ming Tian19, Qiu-He Ji20, Jing Liu21, Jia-Pu Ge22, Li-Xin Shi23 and Yan-Cheng Xu24

Author affiliations

1 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, No. 11 Xizhimen Nandajie, Beijing 100044, China

2 Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China

3 Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China

4 Department of Endocrinology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China

5 Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

6 Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China

7 Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

8 Department of Endocrinology, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China

9 Department of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University Metabolic Disease Hospital, Tianjin, China

10 Department of Endocrinology, Shanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Taiyuan, China

11 Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

12 Department of Endocrinology, Heilongjiang Province Hospital, Harbin, China

13 Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

14 Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China

15 Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China

16 Department of Endocrinology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China

17 Department of Endocrinology, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China

18 Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

19 Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

20 Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China

21 Department of Endocrinology, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, China

22 Department of Endocrinology, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region People’s Hospital, Urumqi, China

23 Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang, China

24 Department of Endocrinology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

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Citation and License

BMC Public Health 2013, 13:602  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-602

Published: 21 June 2013



The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly among Chinese adults, and limited data are available on T2DM management and the status of glycemic control in China. We assessed the efficacy of oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and insulin for treatment of T2DM across multiple regions in China.


This was a multicenter, cross-sectional survey of outpatients conducted in 606 hospitals across China. Data from all the patients were collected between April and June, 2011.


A total of 238,639 patients were included in the survey. Eligible patients were treated with either OADs alone (n=157,212 [65.88%]), OADs plus insulin (n=80,973 [33.93%]), or OADs plus GLP-1 receptor agonists (n=454 [0.19%]). The OAD monotherapy, OAD + insulin, and OAD + GLP-1 receptor agonist groups had mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (±SD) of 7.67% (±1.58%), 8.21% (±1.91%), and 7.80% (±1.76%), respectively. Among those three groups, 34.63%, 26.21%, and 36.12% met the goal of HbA1c <7.0%, respectively. Mean HbA1c and achievement of A1c <7.0% was related to the duration of T2DM.


Less than one third of the patients had achieved the goal of HbA1c <7.0%. Glycemic control decreased and insulin use increased with the duration of diabetes.

China; GLP-1 receptor agonists; HbA1c; Insulin; Oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs); Type 2 diabetes mellitus