Table 1

Relationship types and examples.

Relation type

First argument type

Second argument type

Description

Examples


has_target

Investigation Intervention

Locus

Relates an intervention or an investigation to the bodily locus at which it is targeted.

• This patient has had a

    [arg2] lymph node [arg1] biopsy

• ... he does need a

    [arg2] groin [arg1] dissection

has_finding

Investigation

Condition Result

Relates a condition to an investigation that demonstrated its presence, or a result to the investigation that produced that result.

• This patient has had a lymph node

    [arg1] biopsy
which shows
    [arg2] melanoma

• Although his

    [arg1] PET scan
is
    [arg2] normal
...

has_indication

Drug or device Investigation Intervention

Condition

Relates a condition to a drug, intervention, or investigation that is targeted at that condition.

• Her facial

    [arg2] pain
was initially relieved by
    [arg1] co-codamol

has_location

Condition

Locus

Relationship between a condition and a locus: describes the bodily location of a specific condition.

• ... a biopsy which shows

    [arg1] melanoma
in his right
    [arg2] groin

• Her

    [arg2] facial
    [arg1] pain
was initially relieved by co-codamol

negation_modifies

Negation sig nal

Condition

Relates a condition to its negation or uncertainty about it.

• There was

    [arg1] no evidence
of extra pelvic
    [arg2] secondaries

laterality_modifies

Laterality signal

Locus Intervention

Relates a bodily locus or intervention to its sidedness: right, left, bilateral.

• ... on his

    [arg1] right
    [arg2] second toe

    [arg1] right
    [arg2] thoracotomy

sub_location_modifies

Sub-location signal

Locus

Relates a bodily locus to other information about the location: upper, lower, extra, etc.

    [arg1] extra
    [arg2] pelvic


Relationship types, their argument type constraints, a description and examples. Each example shows a single relation of the given type. Arguments are underlined and preceded by their argument number. (Adapted from the CLEF Annotation Guidelines, http://nlp.shef.ac.uk/clef/ webcite)

Roberts et al. BMC Bioinformatics 2008 9(Suppl 11):S3   doi:10.1186/1471-2105-9-S11-S3

Open Data