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Open Access Research article

Cardiac performance, biomarkers and gene expression studies in previously sedentary men participating in half-marathon training

Danica D Vance13, Gordon L Chen3, Mark Stoutenberg26, Robert J Myerburg34, Kevin Jacobs2, Lubov Nathanson1, Arlette Perry2, David Seo15, Pascal J Goldschmidt-Clermont13 and Evadnie Rampersaud15*

Author Affiliations

1 John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

2 Department of Kinesiology and Sports Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

3 Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

4 Department of Physiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

5 Dr. John T. Macdonald Foundation Department of Human Genetics, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

6 Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

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BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2014, 6:6  doi:10.1186/2052-1847-6-6

Published: 19 February 2014

Abstract

Background

The mechanisms through which exercise reduces cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. We used echocardiograms, cardiac biomarkers and gene expression to investigate cardiovascular effects associated with exercise training.

Methods

Nineteen sedentary men (22–37 years) completed a 17-week half-marathon training program. Serial measurements of resting heart rate, blood pressure, maximum oxygen consumption, lipids, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin T, echocardiograms and blood for gene expression were obtained from baseline to peak training. Controls included 22 sedentary men who did not exercise.

Results

Among the training group, VO2 max increased from 37.1 to 42.0 ml/kg/min (p < 0.001). Significant changes were seen in left ventricular wall thickness and mass, stroke volume, resting heart rate and blood pressure (p < 0.001). The control group demonstrated no significant changes. Expression profiling in the training group identified 10 significantly over-expressed and 53 significantly under-expressed loci involved in inflammatory pathways. Dividing the training group into high and low responders based on percent change in VO2 max identified loci that differentiated these two groups at baseline and after training.

Conclusion

Intensive exercise training leads to significant increase in cardiac and hemodynamic performance, and significant changes in expression of genes involved in immune and inflammatory response.

Keywords:
Gene expression; Exercise; Cardiovascular; Response