Table 2

Risk factors for paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in study patients
Category Hepatotoxicity Unadjusted OR 95% CI p value Adjusted OR 95% CI p value
Yes n = 75 No n = 949
Age(years)
 <20 18(5.9) 288 (94.5) 1.00 0.33 1.00 0.31
 21-30 47(8.4) 510(91.6) 1.48 0.84-2.59 0.18 1.41 0.75 - 2.63 0.29
 >30 10(6.2) 151(93.8) 1.06 0.48-2.35 0.89 0.82 0.34 - 2.00 0.67
Gender
 Female 60 (7.1) 780 (92.9) 1.00
 Male 15 (8.2) 169 (91.8) 1.15 0.64 - 2.08 0.64 NA NA NA
Race
 Indian 13 (3.8) 327 (96.2) 1.00 0.002 1.00 0.007
 Malay 36 (8.6) 382 (91.4) 2.31 1.23-4.34 0.009 2.22 1.13 - 4.37 0.023
 Chinese 26 (12.1) 188 (87.9) 3.39 1.73-6.64 <0.001 3.26 1.55 - 6.84 0.002
PCM# Dose (g)
 <10 12(2.7) 436(97.3) 1.00 1.0
 >10 61(11.3) 481(88.7) 2.59 1.68-3.99 <0.001 2.61 1.53 - 4.46 <0.001
Alcohol Co-ingestion
 Yes 3(6.7) 42(93.3) 1.00
 No 72(7.4) 907 (92.6) 1.11 0.34-3.67 0.87 NA NA NA
BZDP* Co-ingestion
 No 73(7.2) 940(92.8) 1.00
 Yes 2(18.2) 9(81.8) 2.95 0.63-13.91 0.17 3.20 0.60 - 17.68 0.18
Time from PCM Ingestion to Hospital Presentation (hours)
 <3.9 9(1.9) 454(98.1) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
 4.0-24.0 43(8.7) 452(91.3) 5.00 2.42-10.34 <0.001 3.45 1.60 - 7.43 0.001
 >24.1 23(34.8) 43(65.2) 25.50 11.17-58.24 <0.001 10.71 3.46 - 33.15 <0.001
Time from PCM Ingestion to NAC administration (hours)
 <3.9 5(1.5) 332(98.5) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
 4.0-24.0 41(6.8) 560(93.2) 4.95 1.94-12.62 0.001 2.94 1.07 - 8.00 0.037
 >24.1 29(34.1) 56(65.9) 36.31 13.54-97.40 <0.001 9.02 2.97 - 27.43 <0.001

# PCM - paracetamol.

* BZDP - benzodiazepines.

Marzilawati et al.

Marzilawati et al. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012 13:8   doi:10.1186/2050-6511-13-8

Open Data