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Open Access Research article

The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3

Matthias A Ehrmann1*, Angel Angelov2, Claudia Picozzi3, Roberto Foschino3 and Rudi F Vogel1

Author Affiliations

1 Lehrstuhl für Technische Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 4, Freising 85354, Germany

2 Lehrstuhl für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München, Emil-Ramann-Str. 4, Freising 85354, Germany

3 Dipartimento di Scienze per gli Alimenti, la Nutrizione e l’Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Milano, DeFENS, via Celoria, Milano 2 – 20133, Italy

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BMC Research Notes 2013, 6:514  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-514

Published: 5 December 2013



Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations.


Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G + C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase.


EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far.

Genome; Bacteriophage; EMBL accession number PRJEB61; Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis; Sourdough fermentation