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“Post partum hemorrhage: causes and management”

Muhammad Muzzammil Edhi1, Hafiz Muhammad Aslam2*, Zehra Naqvi3 and Haleema Hashmi3

Author Affiliations

1 Liaquat National Medical College, 402, Al Jannat Plaza, M.A. Jinnah road Saed manzil, Karachis, Pakistan

2 Dow Medical College (DUHS), Flat #14, 3rd floor, Rafiq Mansion, Cambell road, Off Arambagh, Karachi, Pakistan

3 Obstetrics and Gyneacology Department, Liaquat National Medical college, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

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BMC Research Notes 2013, 6:236  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-236

Published: 18 June 2013



Post partum hemorrhage is defined as blood loss of 500 ml or above. It is the most common cause of pre-mature mortality of women world wide. Our objective was to evaluate the most common etiology and method of management of Post partum Hemorrhage in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi.


It was a cross sectional study conducted at Liaquat National Hospital Karachi, during the period of July 2011 to May 2012. Review include mode of delivery, possible cause of postpartum hemorrhage, supportive, medical and surgical interventions. All the women admitted with post partum hemorrhage or develop PPH in hospital after delivery were included in our study. Bleeding disorder and use of anticoagulants were set as exclusion criteria. Diagnosis was made on the basis of blood loss assessment which was made via subjective and objective evaluation.

During the targeted months, out of total 1493 deliveries (26/1493 = 1.741%) 26 cases of post partum hemorrhage were reported with a mean age of 26.153 ± 7.37. No deaths were reported and all cases were referred and unbooked cases. All Patients were conscious, tachycardiac and hypotensive. Most of the women were suffering from hemorrhage during or after the birth of their 1st child. Primary post partum hemorrhage emerge as the most common type of post partum hemorrhage and uterine atony was detected as the most common cause of primary post partum hemorrhage. Retained products of conception was the most common cause of secondary post partum hemorrhage and hysterectomy was found to be the most frequent method of management of post partum hemorrhage.


This study highlights the existing variable practices for the management of postpartum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage associated morbidity and mortality can be prevented by critical judgment, early referral and resuscitation by attendants. Introduction of an evidence-based management model can potentially reduce the practice variability and improve the quality of care.

Postpartum hemorrhage; Uterine atony; Hysterectomy