Open Access Research article

Sleep education in pediatric residency programs: a cross-cultural look

Jodi A Mindell1*, Alex Bartle2, Youngmin Ahn3, Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy4, Huynh Thi Duy Huong5, Jun Kohyama6, Albert M Li7, Nichara Ruangdaraganon8, Rini Sekartini9, Arthur Teng10 and Daniel YT Goh11

Author Affiliations

1 The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia, USA

2 Sleep Well Clinics, Christchurch, New Zealand

3 Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea

4 National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

5 University of Medicine and Pharmacy, HCMC, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

6 Tokyo Bay Urayasu/Ichikawa Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan

7 Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Ma Liu Shui, Hong Kong

8 Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

9 Medical School University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

10 Sydney Children’s Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

11 National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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BMC Research Notes 2013, 6:130  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-130

Published: 3 April 2013



The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of education about sleep and sleep disorders in pediatric residency programs and to identify barriers to providing such education.


Surveys were completed by directors of 152 pediatric residency programs across 10 countries (Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States-Canada, and Vietnam).


Overall, the average amount of time spent on sleep education is 4.4 hours (median = 2.0 hours), with 23% responding that their pediatric residency program provides no sleep education. Almost all programs (94.8%) offer less than 10 hours of instruction. The predominant topics covered include sleep-related development, as well as normal sleep, sleep-related breathing disorders, parasomnias, and behavioral insomnia of childhood.


These results indicate that there is still a need for more efforts to include sleep-related education in all pediatric residency programs, as well as coverage of the breadth of sleep-related topics. Such education would be consistent with the increased recognition of the importance of sleep and under-diagnosis of sleep disorders in children and adolescents.

Sleep; Sleep disorders; Residency; Education; Pediatrics