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Increasing ciprofloxacin resistance of isolates from infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi

Farhan Essa Abdullah1*, Akhtar Amin Memon2, Muhammad Yasin Bandukda2 and Marium Jamil2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pathology, Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Essa Lab, B-122, Block-H, Shahrah-e-Jahangir, Karachi, Pakistan

2 Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

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BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:696  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-696

Published: 27 December 2012



The objective of the research was to evaluate the current effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin on the uropathogens prevalent in infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi, Pakistan.


An observational study conducted in a private diagnostic laboratory and its branches in key areas of Karachi City from February 2010 to July 2011. A total of 2963 consecutive urine samples were cultured on chocolate agar, CLED medium and selective EMB agar. Growth of possible uropathogens was noted, and compared retrospectively with earlier lab data of suggestive urine cultures (n = 1997) recorded during January 2009 and December 2009. The isolates were identified using routine procedures and the API 20 system and evaluated for their sensitivity to ciprofloxacin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data was subjected to statistical analysis on SPSS version 16. Out of the present-day culture-positive urines, 2409 (80.4%) yielded gram-negative rods, and 554 (18.5%) gram-positive cocci. E.coli (43.1%) was most frequent, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.5%). 57.2% of the Gram-negative bacteria and 48.7% of the Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. In the earlier (2009) screening, 39% of Gram-negative rods and 48% of Gram-positive cocci were indifferent to the drug.


A decrease in bacterial susceptibility of uropathogens to ciprofloxacin, a commonly prescribed drug in our population, is underlined, occurring possibly due to overuse pressure. Empirical initial treatment with ciprofloxacin would be inadequate in more than half of UTI cases, thereby counseling increased C/S testing of urines to provide existing sensitivity data for apt drug prescription.

Urine; Isolates; Ciprofloxacin; Karachi