Open Access Open Badges Research article

Expression analysis of calmodulin and calmodulin-like genes from rice, Oryza sativa L.

Aumnart Chinpongpanich, Kampon Limruengroj, Srivilai Phean-o-pas, Tipaporn Limpaseni and Teerapong Buaboocha*

Author Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand

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BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:625  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-625

Published: 8 November 2012



In plants, a large family of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like (CML) proteins transduce the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations by binding to and altering the activities of target proteins, and thereby affecting the physiological responses to a vast array of stimuli. Here, transcript expression analysis of Cam and CML gene family members in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was extensively examined.


Cam and CML genes in rice exhibited differential expression patterns in tissues/organs. Under osmotic stress and salt stress, expression of OsCam1-1, OsCML4, 5, 8, and 11 was induced with different kinetics and magnitude. OsCML4 and 8 mRNA levels significantly increased by 3 h after treatment and remained elevated for at least 24 h while expression of OsCam1-1, OsCML5 and 11 was up-regulated as early as 1–3 h before rapidly returning to normal levels. Several cis-acting elements in response to abiotic stresses, including DREs (important promoter elements responsive to drought, high salt, and cold stress), were detected in the 5 upstream regions of these genes. The observed induction of the GUS activity of transgenic rice plants via the OsCam1-1 promoter appeared to be biphasic and dependent on the severity of salt stress.


Large OsCam and OsCML gene family members likely play differential roles as signal transducers in regulating various developmental processes and represent important nodes in the signal transduction and transcriptional regulation networks in abiotic stresss responses mediated by the complex Ca2+ signals in plants, which are rich in both spatial and temporal information.

Calcium signaling; Calmodulin; CaM; CML; Rice; Oryza sativa