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Designing universal primers for the isolation of DNA sequences encoding Proanthocyanidins biosynthetic enzymes in Crataegus aronia

Afnan Said Zuiter1, Jammal Sawwan1 and Ayed Al Abdallat12*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

2 Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research, University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

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BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:427  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-427

Published: 10 August 2012



Hawthorn is the common name of all plant species in the genus Crataegus, which belongs to the Rosaceae family. Crataegus are considered useful medicinal plants because of their high content of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and other related compounds. To improve PAs production in Crataegus tissues, the sequences of genes encoding PAs biosynthetic enzymes are required.


Different bioinformatics tools, including BLAST, multiple sequence alignment and alignment PCR analysis were used to design primers suitable for the amplification of DNA fragments from 10 candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in PAs biosynthesis in C. aronia. DNA sequencing results proved the utility of the designed primers. The primers were used successfully to amplify DNA fragments of different PAs biosynthesis genes in different Rosaceae plants.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first use of the alignment PCR approach to isolate DNA sequences encoding PAs biosynthetic enzymes in Rosaceae plants.

Alignment PCR Analysis; BLAST; Multiple sequence alignment; Proanthocyanidins; Rosaceae