Open Access Open Badges Technical Note

A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

Karin Bölenius14*, Christine Brulin1, Kjell Grankvist2, Marie Lindkvist3 and Johan Söderberg2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

2 Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

3 Department of Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

4 Department of Nursing, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden

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BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:39  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-39

Published: 19 January 2012



Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability.


We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria.


The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

Error risk assessment; Patient safety; Preanalytical errors; Questionnaires; Reliability and validity; Risk; Venous blood sampling