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Comparative experimental re-evaluation of the two implanting methods of silicone gel testicular prostheses in beagle dogs

Tong-li Hao1* and Peng Chen2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Urology, General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, China

2 Department of Electromagnetics and Laser Biology, Radiation Medicine Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China

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BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:99  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-99

Published: 2 April 2011



Testicular prosthesis has been applied clinically for decades, and implantation of testis prosthesis under the tunica albuginea has been considered to be the standard method in the most of the reports. However, postoperative scrotal appearance, the mobilization and the palpitation of the prosthesis are not always satisfactory to all the patients. Modifications in surgical techniques might be necessary to bring improvements to the clinical outcomes in testicular prosthesis implantation.


In a group of 9 beagle dogs in this study, an orchiectomy succeeded with a testicular prosthesis implantation under the tunica vaginalis, and a complete mechanical denudation of the testicular parenchyma succeeded with an implantation under the tunica albuginea were performed, respectively. Histopathological evaluations of the scrotal tissues and the implants, which were made at the end of the follow-up, showed that all the tested animals lived uneventful lives during the follow-up period, and no rejections or infections were found. Prostheses implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying mobilization and palpation than those implanted under the tunica albuginea. Chronic inflammation in the para-prosthesis tissues with vascular proliferation and fibrinogenesis were more common in the "under tunica albuginea" group than that in the "under tunica vaginalis" group, although differences in fibrinogenesis between the two groups were found to be statistically insignificant.


In this comparative study, we have re-evaluated the two most popular implantation methods of testicular prosthesis, the "under the tunica albuginea" and the "under the tunica vaginalis" pathways, in animal models. We found that the testicular prosthesis were all well tolerated, but the prosthesis implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying result concerning appearance, palpability, and histopathological findings than that of the "under the tunica albuginea" group. The "under the tunica vaginalis" method might become a more practical method for future testicular prosthesis implantation.