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Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Research article

Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

Dibesh B Karmacharya1*, Kamal Thapa2, Rinjan Shrestha2, Maheshwar Dhakal3 and Jan E Janecka4

Author Affiliations

1 Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal, Swaraj Sadan 5th Floor, Thapathali-11, Kathmandu, Nepal

2 World Wildlife Fund Inc., Nepal Programme Office, PO Box 7660, Baluwatar, Kathmandu, Nepal

3 Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal

4 Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

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BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:516  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-516

Published: 28 November 2011



The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal.


A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP) in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in the east. Nineteen (27%) scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53%) of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females) and five (2 males and 3 females) in KCA.


We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.