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Open Access Short Report

Lay beliefs of TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

Mekdes K Gebremariam1*, Gunnar A Bjune1 and Jan C Frich2

Author Affiliations

1 Section for International Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, PO Box 1130, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway

2 Department of Health Management and Health Economics, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, PO Box 1089, NO-0317 Oslo, Norway

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BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:277  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-277

Published: 3 August 2011

Abstract

Background

Knowledge about lay beliefs of etiology, transmission and treatment of TB, and lay perceptions of the relationship between TB and HIV is important for understanding patients' health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. We conducted a study to explore lay beliefs about TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Findings

We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 15 TB/HIV co-infected patients and 9 health professionals and focus group discussions with 14 co-infected patients in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. We found that a predominant lay belief was that TB was caused by exposure to cold. Excessive sun exposure, exposure to mud, smoking, alcohol, khat and inadequate food intake were also reported as causes for TB. Such beliefs initially led to self-treatment. The majority of patients were aware of an association between TB and HIV. Some reported that TB could transform into HIV, while others said that the body could be weakened by HIV and become more susceptible to illnesses such as TB. Some patients classified TB as either HIV-related or non-HIV-related, and weight loss was a hallmark for HIV-related TB. The majority of patients believed that people in the community knew that there was an association between TB and HIV, and some feared that this would predispose them to HIV-related stigma.

Conclusion

There is a need for culturally sensitive information and educational efforts to address misperceptions about TB and HIV. Health professionals should provide information about causes and treatment of TB and HIV to co-infected patients.