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Association of beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) Trp64Arg gene polymorphism with obesity and metabolic syndrome in the Balinese: a pilot study

Safarina G Malik1*, Made R Saraswati2, Ketut Suastika2, Hidayat Trimarsanto1, Sukma Oktavianthi1 and Herawati Sudoyo1

Author Affiliations

1 Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jl. Diponegoro 69, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Jl. P.B. Sudirman, and Sanglah Hospital, Jl. Kesehatan, Denpasar, Indonesia

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BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:167  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-167

Published: 27 May 2011



Prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism was proposed to be associated with obesity, although inconsistent findings and differences of the Arg64 allele frequency among various ethnics were reported. Westernization was reported to increase the prevalence of obesity in developing world. In this study we determined the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among urban and rural Balinese, and studied the association of ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism with obesity and MetS.


A total of 528 Balinese (urban 282, rural 246) were recruited. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured using standard procedures. BMI and WC classifications were based on WHO classifications for Asian. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined as described in the Joint Interim Statement. Chi-square test was employed to test the association between the ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype and disease traits.

Urban have higher BMI (p = 2.8 × 10-13), WC ( p < 2.2 × 10-16), TG (p = 0.0028), DBP (p = 1.8 × 10-5), and lower HDL-C (p = 0.0376) when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and MetS prevalence were significantly higher in urban as compared to rural (both p < 0.001). The Arg64 allele frequency was similar between urban (0.06) and rural (0.05). The Arg64 rural female carriers have higher BMI and WC as compared to their Trp64 counterparts (p = 0.041 for BMI and p = 0.012 for WC), and consequently higher abdominal obesity prevalence (p = 0.007). Comparison between male and female, as well as urban and rural, showed different prevalence of MetS co-morbidities. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were consistently appeared in all groups, suggesting to play a role as determinant of MetS in both urban and rural.


Prevalence of obesity and MetS in urban were two times higher when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia appears to be the key determinant of MetS in both urban and rural Balinese. Our results indicated an association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism with obesity in the rural female.