Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Proceedings and BioMed Central.

This article is part of the supplement: Genetic Analysis Workshop 16

Open Access Open Badges Proceedings

Assessment of gene-covariate interactions by incorporating covariates into association mapping

Yen-Feng Chiu1*, Hui-Yi Kao1, Yi-Shin Chen2, Fang-Chi Hsu3 and Hsin-Chou Yang4

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan, Republic of China

2 Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei Street, Hsinchu 30015, Taiwan, Republic of China

3 Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA

4 Institute of Statistics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Republic of China

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Proceedings 2009, 3(Suppl 7):S85  doi:

Published: 15 December 2009


The HLA region is considered to be the main genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis. Previous research demonstrated that HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the shared epitope are specific for disease that is characterized by antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP). In the present study, we incorporated the shared epitope and either anti-CCP antibodies or rheumatoid factor into linkage disequilibrium mapping, to assess the association between the shared epitope or antibodies with the disease gene identified. Incorporating the covariates into the association mapping provides a mechanism 1) to evaluate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and 2) to dissect the pathways underlying disease induction/progress in quantitative antibodies.