In silico labeled JAK-STAT signaling pathway. STAT molecules S (blue) are phosphorylated by an active receptor-kinase complex (pR) and form dimers (pS-pS). These dimers enter the nucleus, dissociate, and are subsequently dephosphorylated. Finally, the single STAT molecules re-enter the cytoplasm, where they can again be phosphorylated and thus continue the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling. The labeling approach is visualized by red spheres attached to the STAT molecules. At t = 0, all cytoplasmic STAT molecules are labeled. After the nuclear export, the label is removed from the molecule and enters the artificial pool of returned label. Consequently, an increasing fraction of cytoplasmic STAT molecules are not labeled which has to be considered in the calculation of fluxes for free and labeled entities. To determine the time-dependent label half-life and transit-time values, the labeling procedure is repeated for a series of time-points.
Maiwald et al. BMC Systems Biology 2012 6:13 doi:10.1186/1752-0509-6-13