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Open Access Research article

Effects of dehydration and blockade of angiotensin II AT1 receptor on stress hormones and anti-oxidants in the one-humped camel

Mahmoud Alhaj Ali1, Elsadig Kazzam3, Naheed Amir1, Fred Nyberg2 and Abdu Adem1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

2 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

3 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

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BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:232  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-232

Published: 19 November 2013

Abstract

Background

The objective of this study was to provide for the first time data on plasma catecholamines, cortisol, glutathione and malondialdehyde after long term dehydration (20 days) in the presence and absence of angiotensin II (Ang II) AT1 receptor blocker (losartan) versus levels in time-matched, non-dehydrated control camels and to record the responses of glutathione and malondialdehyde activity in liver and kidney homogenates in control, dehydrated-losartan treated and dehydrated camels. Eighteen male camels were studied, six hydrated (control group), six dehydrated and treated with losartan (treated group) and six dehydrated not treated (dehydrated).

Results

Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in both treated and dehydrated groups compared to time matched control, whereas Plasma epinephrine level showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in both treated and dehydrated groups compared to control. Plasma cortisol also showed significant increase (P < 0.01) in both treated and dehydrated groups compared to control. Glutathione levels in plasma, liver and kidney homogenates for both treated and dehydrated groups reveled significant increase (P < 0.05) Likewise, malondialdehyde levels in plasma, liver and kidney homogenates were substantially and significantly increased in both treated and dehydrated groups.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that dehydration substantially increased the circulating levels of norepinephrine, dopamine and cortisol but decreased plasma epinephrine. Similarly, losartan showed similar effects to that of dehydration. In addition, this investigation showed dehydration alone or in combination with losartan induced significant increments in glutathione and malondialdehyde activities in plasma, liver and kidney homogenates, presumably in order to counteract the potentially damaging effects of free radicals. Blockade of angiotensin II AT1 receptors did not alter significantly the response of dehydration in any of these indices.

Keywords:
Camel; Catecholamine; Cortisol; Dehydration; Glutathione; Losartan and malondialdehyde