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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Aaron R Morawski124, Christina M Carlson23, Haeyoon Chang2 and Christopher J Johnson2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA

2 USGS National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI, USA

3 Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA

4 Present address: National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda 20892, Maryland, USA

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BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:157  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-157

Published: 9 August 2013

Abstract

Background

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown.

Results

We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R154Q171 genotype). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R154Q171 genotype sheep.

Conclusions

Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including animal studies, is warranted. The lack of reported TSEs in BHS may be attributable to other host factors or a lack of TSE surveillance in this species.

Keywords:
Bighorn sheep; Scrapie; Chronic wasting disease; Transmissible mink encephalopathy; Species barrier