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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

Rejane G Ribeiro1, Ana Paula A Costa1, Nathália Bragato2, Angela M Fonseca3, Juan CM Duque4, Tales D Prado1, Andrea CR Silva1 and Naida C Borges5*

Author Affiliations

1 Pos graduation degree in Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

2 Medical resident in Veterinary Imaging Diagnostic, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

3 Medical resident in Veterinary Anesthesiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

4 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Anesthesiology Service, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

5 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Imaging Diagnostic Service, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

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BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:124  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-124

Published: 23 June 2013

Abstract

Background

The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis.

Results

The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized.

Conclusions

Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.