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Open Access Research article

Comparison of three different sedative-anaesthetic protocols (ketamine, ketamine-medetomidine and alphaxalone) in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

Jaco Bakker1*, Joost J Uilenreef2, Eva RJ Pelt2, Herbert PM Brok1, Edmond J Remarque3 and Jan AM Langermans1

  • * Corresponding author: Jaco Bakker bakker@bprc.nl

  • † Equal contributors

Author Affiliations

1 Animal Science Department, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Lange Kleiweg 161, 2288 GJ, Rijswijk, The Netherlands

2 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, Yalelaan 106, 3584 CM, Utrecht, The Netherlands

3 Department of Parasitology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Lange Kleiweg 161, 2288 GJ, Rijswijk, The Netherlands

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BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:113  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-113

Published: 11 June 2013

Abstract

Background

Handling of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) usually requires chemical restraint. Ketamine has been associated with muscle damage in primates, while common marmosets, compared to other primates, additionally display an exceptional high sensitivity to ketamine-associated side-effects. Notably, muscle twitching movements of limbs and hands, and a marked increase in salivation are observed. We investigated two alternative intramuscular (i.m.) immobilisation protocols against ketamine (50 mg/kg; protocol 1) in a double-blind randomised crossover study in ten healthy adult common marmosets for use as a safe reliable, short-term immobilisation and sedation. These protocols comprised: alphaxalone (12 mg/kg; protocol 2) and 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.50 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 2.5 mg/kg atipamezole; protocol 3A). Following completion and unblinding, the project was extended with an additional protocol (3B), comprising 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 0.25 mg/kg atipamezole, twice with 35 min interval).

Results

All protocols in this study provided rapid onset (induction times <5 min) of immobilisation and sedation. Duration of immobilisation was 31.23 ± 22.39 min, 53.72 ± 13.08 min, 19.73 ± 5.74 min, and 22.78 ± 22.37 min for protocol 1, 2, 3A, and 3B, respectively. Recovery times were 135.84 ± 39.19 min, 55.79 ± 11.02 min, 405.46 ± 29.81 min, and 291.91 ± 80.34 min, respectively. Regarding the quality, and reliability (judged by pedal withdrawal reflex, palpebral reflex and muscle tension) of all protocols, protocol 2 was the most optimal. Monitored vital parameters were within clinically acceptable limits during all protocols and there were no fatalities. Indication of muscle damage as assessed by AST, LDH and CK values was most prominent elevated in protocol 1, 3A, and 3B.

Conclusions

We conclude that intramuscular administration of 12 mg/kg alphaxalone to common marmosets is preferred over other protocols studied. Protocol 2 resulted in at least comparable immobilisation quality with acceptable and less frequent side effects and superior recovery quality. In all protocols, supportive therapy, such as external heat support, remains mandatory. Notably, an unacceptable long recovery period in both ketamine/medetomidine protocols (subsequently reversed with atipamezole) was observed, showing that α-2 adrenoreceptor agonists in the used dose and dosing regime is not the first choice for sedation in common marmosets in a standard research setting.

Keywords:
Alphaxalone; Atipamezole; Common marmoset; Immobilisation; Induction; Ketamine; Medetomidine; Recovery; Sedation