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Open Access Research article

A seroepidemiologic study of Reston ebolavirus in swine in the Philippines

Yusuke Sayama12, Catalino Demetria4, Mariko Saito3, Rachel R Azul5, Satoshi Taniguchi1, Shuetsu Fukushi1, Tomoki Yoshikawa1, Itoe Iizuka1, Tetsuya Mizutani1, Ichiro Kurane1, Fidelino F Malbas4, Socorro Lupisan4, Davinio P Catbagan5, Samuel B Animas5, Rieldrin G Morales5, Emelinda L Lopez5, Karen Rose C Dazo5, Magdalena S Cruz5, Remigio Olveda4, Masayuki Saijo1, Hitoshi Oshitani23 and Shigeru Morikawa1*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, 208-0011, Japan

2 Department of Virology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan

3 Tohoku-RITM Collaborating Research Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, FILINVEST Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, 1781, Philippines

4 Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, FILINVEST Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, 1781, Philippines

5 Bureau of Animal Industry, Elliptical Road, Diliman, Quezon City, 1107, Philippines

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Citation and License

BMC Veterinary Research 2012, 8:82  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-82

Published: 18 June 2012



Ebola viruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates and are endemic in Africa. Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) has caused several epizootics in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) but is not associated with any human disease. In late 2008, REBOV infections were identified in swine for the first time in the Philippines.


A total of 215 swine sera collected at two REBOV-affected farms in 2008, in Pangasinan and Bulacan, were tested for the presence of REBOV-specific antibodies using multiple serodiagnosis systems. A total of 98 swine sera collected in a non-epizootic region, Tarlac, were also tested to clarify the prevalence of REBOV infection in the general swine population in the Philippines.


Some 70‚ÄČ% of swine sera at the affected farms were positive for REBOV antibodies in the multiple serodiagnosis systems. On the other hand, none of the swine sera collected in Tarlac showed positive reactions in any of the diagnosis systems.


The high prevalence of REBOV infection in swine in the affected farms in 2008 suggests that swine is susceptible for REBOV infection. The multiple serological assays used in the study are thought to be useful for future surveillance of REOBV infection in swine in the Philippines.

Reston ebolavirus; Antibody; Swine; Philippines