Table 1

Clinical findings in 461 cows with caecal dilation
Variable Finding Number of cows
(Mean ± sd; Median, minimum, maximum)
[P value from Wilk-Shapiro test]
Heart rate (n = 461) Normal (60 – 80) 322
(72, 42, 160 bpm) Bradycardia (42 – 59) 26
[0.001] Tachycardia (81 – 160) 113
Respiratory rate (n = 461) Normal (15 – 25) 254
(24, 12, 108 breaths per minute Decreased (12 – 14) 6
[0.000] Increased (26 – 108) 201
Rectal temperature (n = 457) Normal (38.5 – 39.0) 229
(38.7 ± 0.6 °C) Decreased (36.5 – 38.5) 115
[0.936] Increased (39.1 – 40.4) 113
Not measurable (pneumorectum) 4
Rumen motility (n = 461) Normal 87
Decreased 260
Absent 101
Increased 13
Foreign body tests (n = 445) All tests negative 354
Back grip positive1 42
Pole test positive1 19
Percussion of the reticulum positive1 7
Two or three tests positive 23
Swinging and percussion auscultation on the right side (n = 461) Both negative (normal) 80
Both positive 272
Only swinging auscultation positive 72
Only percussion auscultation positive 37
Rectal findings (n = 461) Caudal displacement of the caecum 291
Torsion of the caecum 20
Retroflexion of the caecum 94
Caecum not palpable 56

1 Elicited a grunt in at least 3 of 4 tests.

Braun et al.

Braun et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:75   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-75

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