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Open Access Research article

The use of ELISAs for monitoring exposure of pig herds to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Yong Song13*, Barbara Frey2 and David J Hampson1

Author Affiliations

1 Animal Research Institute, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia

2 Consistent Pork, PO Box 6901, East Perth, Western Australia 6892, Australia

3 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, M550, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia, Australia

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BMC Veterinary Research 2012, 8:6  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-6

Published: 17 January 2012

Abstract

Background

Swine dysentery (SD), a mucohaemorrhagic diarrhoeal disease of pigs, results from infection of the large intestine with the spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. ELISA systems using whole spirochaete cells (WC) and the B. hyodysenteriae outer membrane lipoprotein Bhlp29.7 previously have been established as potential diagnostic tools for SD. However, their true value in identifying infected herds remains unclear. The present study aimed to compare the performance of whole-cell and Bhlp29.7 based ELISAs in detecting specific immunoglobulin class IgG and IgM to B. hyodysenteriae in growing pigs, and additionally evaluated whether meat juice could serve as a source of specific antibodies.

Results

Levels of circulating IgG and IgM reacting with WC spirochaete preparations and recombinant Bhlp29.7 peaked 4-6 weeks post-infection in the experimentally challenged pigs, and remained elevated in the present study. In a cohort of pigs on an infected farm levels of antibody directed against both antigens showed a progressive increase with time. However, other than for the level of IgG against WC antigen, a significant increase in antibody levels also was observed in a cohort of pigs on a non-infected farm. In addition, assays using meat juice had 100% specificity and equivalent sensitivity to those based on serum, and likewise the best performance was achieved using the WC IgG ELISA.

Conclusions

IgG ELISAs using either WC or Bhlp29.7 as plate-coating antigens were shown to be useful for monitoring the dynamics of B. hyodysenteriae infection in grower pigs. Of the two antigens, the WC preparation tended to give better discrimination between pigs from infected and non-infected farms. Testing of meat juice was shown to have potential for identifying infected herds.

Keywords:
Antibody profiles; Brachyspira hyodysenteriae; ELISA; Meat juice; Swine dysentery