Table 1

Improvement of clinical signs during the study period as indicated by the number of calves in the clinical categories on admission (n = 121) and 24 hours after the initiation of therapy (n = 116)
Clinical Categories (Score) On admission* After 24 h p value
n n
Posture/Ability to stand
 Standing up by itself (1) 7 12 < 0.001
 Standing up after encouragement (2) 53 99
 Standing securely after lifting (3) 7 4
 Insecurely, able to correct position if pushed (4) 14 1
 Insecurely, not able to correct position if pushed (5) 24 (29) -
 Sternal recumbency (6) 7 -
 Lateral recumbency (7) 4 -
Behavior
 Adequate reaction to acoustic and optical stimuli, very bright and alert (1) 18 48 < 0.001
 Adequate reaction to acoustic and optical stimuli (2) 37 62
 Delayed reaction to acoustic and optical stimuli (3) 42 6
 Calf reacts only to painful stimuli (e.g. venipuncture) (4) 15 (20) -
 No reaction to painful stimuli (5) 4 -
Suckling reflex
 Strong (1) 33 45 0.003
 Weak (2) 42 52
 Absent or chewing movements (3) 41 (46) 19
Palpebral reflex
 Eyelids are closed immediately and fully (1) 55 98 < 0.001
 Eyelids are closed immediately but not fully (2) 34 17
 Eyelids are closed with delay and not fully (3) 20 (24) 1
 Eyelids are not closed at all (4) 7 (8) -
Degree of enophthalmos#
 None (1) 41 99 < 0.001
 Slightly sunken (2) 31 (32) 13
 Moderately sunken (3) 26 (29) 4
 Severely sunken (4) 18 (19) -
Degree of skin tenting
 Resolution of skin tenting prompt (1) 8 35 < 0.001
 Slightly delayed (2) 23 45
 Moderately delayed (3) 38 (40) 32
 Skin tenting does not resolve spontaneously (4) 47 (50) 4

*Including calves that were not treated with the decision tree for reasons of expected treatment failure are indicated by brackets.

# The bulbi were classified as sunken in cases of a visible gap between the eyeball and caruncula lacrimalis. The median measured eyeball recession (mm) in the four categories were 1, 4, 6, and 9, respectively.

Trefz et al.

Trefz et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:238   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-238

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