Table 2

Clinical signs observed in polo horses with glanders during the study period
Clinical signs d 0 before malleinisation d 60 during treatment d 180 post-treatment d 360 follow-up period
# % # % # % # %
a) Fever 22 95.6 - - - - -
mild (38.9-39.4°C; 102.0 -102.9°F)
moderate (39.5-40.0°C; 103.1-104.0°F)
b) Inappentence 23 100 - - - - - -
c) Debility 23 100 - - - - - -
d) Quick loss of stamina (when put to work, exercised or driven) 23 100 - - - - - -
f) Cough 14 60.9 - - - - - -
g) Dyspnoea 16 69.6 - - - - - -
h) Abnormal respiratory sounds (audible at a distance) 10 43.5 - - - - - -
i) Nasal discharge 18 78.3 - - - - - -
- Uni-lateral 10 43.5 - - - - - -
- Bilateral 8 34.8 - - - - - -
- Without blood 4 17.4 - - - - - -
- With blood 14 60.9 - - - - - -
- Occasional epistaxis (when put to work, exercised or driven) 6 26.1 - - - - - -
j) Nasal septum ulcers 16 69.6 - - - - - -
k) Nodules and crater-like ulcers 20 86.9 - - - - - -
- Medial aspect of thigh 14 60.9 - - - - - -
- Perianal region 6 26.1 - - - - - -
- Groin 6 26.1 - - - - - -
- Below hock 6 26.1 - - - - - -
- Foreleg 2 8.7 - - - - - -
- Achilles tendon 2 8.7 - - - - - -
- Face 4 17.4 - - - - - -
- Testes 4 17.4 - - - - - -
- Distributed almost all over the body 4 17.4 - - - - - -
l) Orchitis 4 26.6 - - - - - -
m) Enlargement of submaxillary lymph nodes 23 100 - - - - - -
- Enlargement visible from a distance 4 17.4 -* - - - - -
- Enlargement detectable only on palpation 20 86.9 -* - - - - -
n) Cording of lymphatics 10 43.5 - - - - - -
- Inner aspects of thigh 6 26.1 - - - - - -
- Latero-medial aspects of trunk and abdomen 4 17.4 - - - - - -
o) Oedema of hind legs 8 34.8

#: number of horses affected; *: tortuous, palpably enlarged; - not observed.

Saqib et al.

Saqib et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:214   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-214

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