Table 3

Cardiac dimensions, time indices, technique and measurement reliability from 40 adult healthy goats
Parameter Mean±SD Reference range (mean±2SD) Technique repeatability Technique reproducibility Measurement repeatability Measurement reproducibility
Max% difference ICC Max% difference ICC Kappa Max% difference ICC Max% difference ICC Kappa
PA (cm) + * 1.93±0.28 1.37-2.49 2.8 0.91 3.6 0.87 0.88 2.1 0.95 2.6 0.91 0.90
Ao (cm) + * 2.18±0.26 1.66-2.70 3.1 0.89 4.0 0.82 0.83 2.7 0.92 3.3 0.89 0.88
PA: Ao 0.93±0.04 0.85-1.01
AoS (cm) 2.64±0.30 2.04-3.24 2.8 0.90 3.2 0.88 0.87 2.4 0.94 3.1 0.85 0.86
Ao-cs (cm) 2.42±0.28 1.86-2.98 3.3 0.86 3.8 0.81 0.82 2.6 0.92 2.9 0.90 0.90
LAD (cm)+ 4.06±0.54 2.98-5.14 3.2 0.86 4.3 0.81 0.80 2.5 0.93 3.6 0.82 0.81
ET (sec) 0.18±0.05 0.08-0.28 3.3 0.88 3.7 0.84 0.83 2.7 0.91 3.2 0.87 0.88
PEP (ms) 0.03±0.01 0.01-0.05 3.2 0.85 3.4 0.87 0.88 2.3 0.95 2.6 0.89 0.90
EPSS (cm) 0.37±0.09 0.19-0.55 3.0 0.88 3.5 0.86 0.84 2.5 0.93 3.2 0.85 0.84
RVDd (cm) 0.99±0.32 0.35-1.63 6.3 0.64 6.7 0.55 0.58 3.9 0.81 4.5 0.76 0.70
RVDs (cm) 0.67±0.28 0.15-1.19 6.5 0.68 7.1 0.52 0.54 3.8 0.81 4.3 0.76 0.72
IVSd (cm) + * 0.98±0.21 0.56-1.4 3.4 0.88 3.8 0.81 0.82 2.9 0.89 3.1 0.85 0.83
IVSs (cm)+ 1.32±0.32 0.68-1.96 3.6 0.86 4.1 0.80 0.84 3.1 0.86 3.2 0.83 0.82
LVDd (cm)+ 3.74±0.48 2.78-4.70 2.2 0.96 2.6 0.92 0.90 1.8 0.97 2.3 0.92 0.91
LVDs (cm)* 2.11±0.31 1.49-2.73 2.4 0.94 3.0 0.88 0.86 2.1 0.96 2.5 0.92 0.92
FWd (cm) + * 0.79±0.07 0.65-0.93 3.8 0.81 4.6 0.75 0.73 3.2 0.86 3.6 0.78 0.79
FWs (cm)* 1.22±0.19 0.84-1.60 4.2 0.80 5.2 0.73 0.71 3.4 0.84 3.8 0.80 0.81
FS (%) 45.2±5.9 33.4-57.0
LVEF (%) 73.6±5.4 62.8-84.4
HR (bpm) 87.1±3.2 80.7-93.5

Table 3 Reference ranges (mean± 2 standard deviations) and mean ± standard deviation for cardiac dimensions, time indices and heart rate from 40 adult healthy goats. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility are also displayed and assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and maximal differences between measures. Cohen’s Kappa was additionally used to assess reproducibility. * shows significant species differences and + shows significant differences when corrected for bodyweight; p < 0.05. Abbreviations: Ao: aorta; Ao-cs: aorta measured from a short axis view (cross-section); AoS: aortic sinus; EPSS: e-point to septal separation; ET: ejection time; FS: fractional shortening; FWd: left ventricular free wall measured in diastole; FWs: left ventricular free wall measured in systole; HR: heart rate; IVSd: inter-ventricular septum measured in diastole; IVSs: inter-ventricular septum measured in systole; LAD: left atrial diameter measured end systole; LVDd: left ventricular diameter measured in diastole; LVDs: left ventricular diameter measured in systole; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; PA: pulmonary artery PA: Ao: ratio of pulmonary artery to aorta; PEP: pre-ejection period; RVDd: right ventricular diameter measured in diastole; RVDs: right ventricular diameter measured in systole.

Hallowell et al.

Hallowell et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:181   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-181

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