Table 2

Cardiac dimensions, time indices, technique and measurement reliability from 51 adult healthy sheep
Parameter Reference range (mean±2SD) Mean±SD Technique repeatability Technique reproducibility Measurement repeatability Measurement reproducibility
Max% difference ICC Max% difference ICC Kappa Max% difference ICC Max% difference ICC Kappa
PA (cm) + * 1.96-2.80 2.38±0.21 2.5 0.92 3.8 0.88 0.87 2.3 0.94 2.8 0.91 0.89
Ao (cm) + * 2.24-3.24 2.74±0.25 2.9 0.90 4.2 0.86 0.85 2.6 0.92 3.1 0.88 0.89
PA: Ao 0.77-1.01 0.89±0.06
AoS (cm) 2.58-3.82 3.20±0.31 3.2 0.90 3.0 0.90 0.88 2.8 0.92 3.2 0.89 0.87
Ao-cs (cm) 2.49-3.69 3.09±0.30 2.7 0.93 3.6 0.88 0.87 2.4 0.94 2.8 0.90 0.90
LAD (cm)+ 2.83-6.35 4.59±0.88 2.6 0.91 4.1 0.84 0.82 2.2 0.94 2.7 0.89 0.88
ET (sec) 0.11-0.27 0.19±0.04 3.1 0.90 3.3 0.89 0.87 2.4 0.93 2.6 0.92 0.91
PEP (ms) 0.01-0.05 0.03±0.01 2.8 0.88 3.0 0.87 0.96 2.6 0.92 2.9 0.90 0.92
EPSS (cm) 0.24-0.60 0.42±0.09 3.3 0.85 3.7 0.82 0.80 2.7 0.90 3.0 0.92 0.86
RVDd (cm) 0.70-2.14 1.42±0.36 5.9 0.66 7.2 0.51 0.56 3.4 0.84 4.4 0.74 0.64
RVDs (cm) 0.56-1.12 0.84±0.14 6.2 0.72 6.6 0.57 0.59 3.6 0.82 4.1 0.72 0.66
IVSd (cm) + * 0.89-1.49 1.19±0.15 3.8 0.84 3.6 0.82 0.84 2.8 0.91 3.2 0.87 0.85
IVSs (cm)+ 1.19-1.91 1.55±0.18 4.2 0.82 3.8 0.82 0.84 3.0 0.90 3.5 0.88 0.88
LVDd (cm)+ 3.34-5.50 4.42±0.54 2.4 0.91 2.7 0.90 0.89 2.2 0.93 2.5 0.90 0.88
LVDs (cm)* 1.92-3.32 2.62±0.35 2.8 0.92 3.2 0.90 0.88 2.5 0.94 2.6 0.92 0.90
FWd (cm) + * 0.71-1.27 0.99±0.14 4.8 0.82 5.7 0.76 0.74 3.4 0.84 3.9 0.79 0.78
FWs (cm)* 0.94-2.06 1.50±0.28 5.2 0.81 6.3 0.74 0.73 3.6 0.86 4.1 0.81 0.80
FS (%) 30.6-49.8 40.2±4.8
LVEF (%) 67.1-86.7 76.9±4.9
HR (bpm) 73.5-95.1 84.3±5.4

Table 2 Reference ranges (mean± 2 standard deviations) and mean ± standard deviation for cardiac dimensions, time indices and heart rate from 51 adult healthy sheep. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility are also displayed and assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and maximal differences between measures. Cohen’s Kappa was additionally used to assess reproducibility. * shows significant species differences and + shows significant differences when corrected for bodyweight; p < 0.05. Abbreviations: Ao: aorta; Ao-cs: aorta measured from a short axis view (cross-section); AoS: aortic sinus; EPSS: e-point to septal separation; ET: ejection time; FS: fractional shortening; FWd: left ventricular free wall measured in diastole; FWs: left ventricular free wall measured in systole; HR: heart rate; IVSd: inter-ventricular septum measured in diastole; IVSs: inter-ventricular septum measured in systole; LAD: left atrial diameter measured end systole; LVDd: left ventricular diameter measured in diastole; LVDs: left ventricular diameter measured in systole; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; PA: pulmonary artery PA: Ao: ratio of pulmonary artery to aorta; PEP: pre-ejection period; RVDd: right ventricular diameter measured in diastole; RVDs: right ventricular diameter measured in systole.

Hallowell et al.

Hallowell et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:181   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-181

Open Data