|Describing how images were obtained and what structures were visualised|
|View||Intercostal space image obtainedfrom||Probe orientation||Structures visualised||Comments|
|Right parasternal cranial long axis view||RICS4||0° rotation||PA, PV, RVOT, and TV||Adequate quality in 5.4% due to small scanning window|
|Right parasternal caudal long-axis view of the LVOT||RICS4||Transducer rotated between 0 and 30°||Ao, AoV, LVOT and RV||TV only visible in 78.4% of the sheep and 70% of the goats|
|Right parasternal long axis view of the LV||RICS4 - 88.2% sheep and 70% goats RICS5 – 11.8% sheep and 30% goats||Caudal with 0° rotation||LV, MV, RV and TV||Could not visualise entire LA and RA|
|Right parasternal caudal short axis view of the LV||RICS4 2 cm above point of olecranon||90° rotation||LV, papillary muscles in LV, RV and TV||Symmetrical views in 91.2% of animals|
|Right parasternal caudal short axis view of the MV||RICS4 2 cm above point of olecranon||Caudo-dorsally with 90° rotation||MV and RV||Symmetrical views were obtained in 94.5% of animals Image occasionally obscured by pleural surface|
|Right parasternal caudal short axis view of AoV||RICS4 2 cm above point of olecranon||Dorsally oriented with 90° rotation||Ao, MV, RV and TV||Pleural surface visible in 71.4% of images|
|Left parasternal caudal long axis view (Figure 1)||LICS5 in 76.9% and LICS4 in 13.1% 2-3 cm above the olecranon||Caudally oriented with 0° rotation||CdVC, LA, LV, and MV||Spherical CdVC used as landmark in the far field|
|Left parasternal cranial long axis view||LICS4||Cranio-dorsally oriented with 0 to -20° rotation||Ao, AoV CdVC, and LVOT|
|Left parasternal cranial long-axis view of the RVOT||LICS4 in 56% and LICS3 in 44%||Cranio-dorsally, with 0° rotation||Ao, PA, PV RA, RVOT and TV|
Table 1 Descriptions of how standard views described for horses [17,18] were adapted to obtain equivalent images in sheep and goats, which intercostal space they were obtained from, what structures were visible and any other important notes. Abbreviations: Ao: aorta; AoV: aortic valve; CdVC: caudal vena cava; LA: left atrium; LICS: left intercostal space; LVOT: left ventricular outflow tract; LV: left ventricle; MV: mitral valve; PA: pulmonary artery; PV: pulmonary valve; RA: right atrium; RICS: right intercostal space; RV: right ventricle; RVOT: right ventricular outflow tract; TV: tricuspid valve.
Hallowell et al.
Hallowell et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:181 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-181