Table 1

Describing how images were obtained and what structures were visualised
View Intercostal space image obtainedfrom Probe orientation Structures visualised Comments
Right parasternal cranial long axis view RICS4 0° rotation PA, PV, RVOT, and TV Adequate quality in 5.4% due to small scanning window
Right parasternal caudal long-axis view of the LVOT RICS4 Transducer rotated between 0 and 30° Ao, AoV, LVOT and RV TV only visible in 78.4% of the sheep and 70% of the goats
Right parasternal long axis view of the LV RICS4 - 88.2% sheep and 70% goats RICS5 – 11.8% sheep and 30% goats Caudal with 0° rotation LV, MV, RV and TV Could not visualise entire LA and RA
Right parasternal caudal short axis view of the LV RICS4 2 cm above point of olecranon 90° rotation LV, papillary muscles in LV, RV and TV Symmetrical views in 91.2% of animals
Right parasternal caudal short axis view of the MV RICS4 2 cm above point of olecranon Caudo-dorsally with 90° rotation MV and RV Symmetrical views were obtained in 94.5% of animals Image occasionally obscured by pleural surface
Right parasternal caudal short axis view of AoV RICS4 2 cm above point of olecranon Dorsally oriented with 90° rotation Ao, MV, RV and TV Pleural surface visible in 71.4% of images
Left parasternal caudal long axis view (Figure 1) LICS5 in 76.9% and LICS4 in 13.1% 2-3 cm above the olecranon Caudally oriented with 0° rotation CdVC, LA, LV, and MV Spherical CdVC used as landmark in the far field
Left parasternal cranial long axis view LICS4 Cranio-dorsally oriented with 0 to -20° rotation Ao, AoV CdVC, and LVOT
Left parasternal cranial long-axis view of the RVOT LICS4 in 56% and LICS3 in 44% Cranio-dorsally, with 0° rotation Ao, PA, PV RA, RVOT and TV

Table 1 Descriptions of how standard views described for horses [17,18] were adapted to obtain equivalent images in sheep and goats, which intercostal space they were obtained from, what structures were visible and any other important notes. Abbreviations: Ao: aorta; AoV: aortic valve; CdVC: caudal vena cava; LA: left atrium; LICS: left intercostal space; LVOT: left ventricular outflow tract; LV: left ventricle; MV: mitral valve; PA: pulmonary artery; PV: pulmonary valve; RA: right atrium; RICS: right intercostal space; RV: right ventricle; RVOT: right ventricular outflow tract; TV: tricuspid valve.

Hallowell et al.

Hallowell et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:181   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-181

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