Table 2

Major causes of death, histo-pathology and etiology findings in European bat species.

Bat species

Cause of death

(%)

Main histo-pathological findings

Bacterial infection

(%)


Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)

Trauma

(42.0)

1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia

Pasteurella multocida

(68.2)

Organ lesions

(23.9)

2. Mild to severe enteritis

Enterococcus faecalis

Bacterial infection

(9.4)

3. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis

Enterobacteriaceae

Others*

(24.6)

Bacillus cereus

Nathusius' pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii)

Trauma

(36.4)

1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia

Pasteurella multocida

(28.6)

Organ lesions

(18.2)

2. Necroses (liver, kidney)

Staphylococcus aureus

(28.6)

Bacterial infection

(18.2)

3. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis

Enterobacteriaceae

Others*

(27.2)

Common noctule (Nyctalus noctula)

Trauma§

(70.7)

1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia

Enterobacteriaceae (Salmonella species, Escherichia coli)

Organ lesions

(12.0)

2. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis

Staphylococcus aureus

Bacterial infection

(4.3)

3. Mild to severe enteritis

Others*

(13.0)

4. Foreign body granulomatous glossitisf

5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Trauma

(22.6)

1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia

Enterococcus species

(55.6)

Organ lesions

(20.8)

2. Inflammatory cell infiltrates (liver)

Enterobacteriaceae

Bacterial infection

(13.2)

3. Mild to severe multiorgan parasitosis

Pasteurella multocida

Others*

(43.4)

4. Mild to severe enteritis

Aerococcus viridans

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Organ lesions

(41.2)

1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia

Enterococcus faecium

Trauma

(11.8)

2. Mild to severe enteritis

Bacterial infection

(5.9)

3. Inflammatory cell infiltrates (liver)

Others*

(41.1)

Parti-coloured bat (Vespertilio murinus)

Organ lesions

(30.4)

1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia

Pasteurella multocida

(42.9)

Bacterial infection

(26.1)

2. Necroses (various organs)

Enterococcus species

(42.9)

Trauma

(21.7)

3. Fibrinous suppurative peri-/epicarditis

Enterobacter species

Others*

(21.7)

4. Severe multiorgan hemosiderosis

Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus)

Bacterial infection

(20.8)

1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia

Pasteurella multocida

(40.0)

Organ lesions

(16.7)

2. Necroses (various organs)

Enterobacteriaceae

Trauma

(12.5)

Others*

(50.0)

Whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus)

Trauma

(26.3)

1. Mild to severe interstitial pneumonia

Pasteurella multocida

(33.3)

Bacterial infection

(15.8)

2. Renal/intestinal coccidiosis

Enterobacteriaceae

Organ lesions

(5.3)

3. Mild bile duct proliferation

Enterococcus faecalis

Others*

(52.6)

Clostridium sordellii

Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii)

Trauma

(50.0)

1. Mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia

Cedecea davisae

Organ lesions

(10.0)

2. Mild to focal severe enteritis

Others*

(40.0)

3. Severe necrotizing hepatitis

Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri)

Trauma

(35.3)

1. Mild interstitial pneumonia

Enterococcus faecalis

Organ lesions

(11.8)

2. Mild to moderate enteritis

Bacterial infection

(5.9)

Others*

(47.0)


Mainly due to cat predation.

Pathological changes of unknown etiology.

§ Mainly due to roost destruction, trapped individuals and wing fractures of unknown cause.

* Pulmonary edema, anemia, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hypo-/hyperthermia, no significant findings.

f Associated with chitinous body parts of prey insects [30].

Mühldorfer et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2011 7:61   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-61

Open Data