Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Veterinary Research and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

Kuladip Jana1* and Prabhat K Samanta2

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, Centenary Campus, P 1/12, C.I.T. Scheme, VIIM, Kolkata-700 054, India

2 Department of Surgery & Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, 37 & 68, Kshudiram Bose Sarani, Kolkata- 700 037, India

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7:39  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-39

Published: 21 July 2011



Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic.


At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response.


Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals.

cat; calcium chloride; sterilization; androgenic key enzymes; stress; testosterone