Table 5

Relative frequency of clinical signs at neurological examinations over time post inoculation compared to control cattle

Study

1

1

1

1

2

2


Groups

1 g

100 g

1 g

100 g

4

2


Postmortem BSE diagnosis

Pos

Pos

Neg

Neg

Pos

Neg


Behaviour


Nervous or apprehensive in corridor

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Nervous entering milking parlour

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

---

---


Kicked out during examination

↑↑

↑↑

LI

LI

LI


Nervous/head shy in crush

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Vocal free

↑↑↑


Crush refused or entered reluctantly

LI

LI

LI

LI


Yawning

↑↑↑


Sensation


Startle during examination once

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Startle during examination repeatedly

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Clipboard test abnormal ≥1

↑↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑


Clipboard test abnormal >2

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Over-reactivity to sound once

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Over-reactivity present once/2 tests

↑↑↑

↑↑

↑↑


Over-reactivity present >2/2 tests

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Over-reactivity to sound >2

↑↑↑

↑↑


Flash test abnormal >2

↑↑↑

LI


Flash test abnormal ≥1

↑↑↑


Stick test: kicking

LI

LI

LI

LI

↑↑↑


Head tests nervous

LI

LI

LI

LI

↑↑


Head restraint nervous

LI

LI

LI

LI


Movement


Tremor

↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑

↑↑↑


Ataxia or hypermetria

↑↑

↑↑↑

↑↑↑


Groups were compared with undosed controls (study 1) or saline-inoculated controls (study 2).

↑= greater/↓ = lower hazard rate than controls, with P<0.001 (three arrows), P = 0.001-0.01 (two arrows) and P>0.01 and <0.0125 (four comparisons) or <0.0167 (three comparisons) (one arrow). Blank cell: no significant difference; low incidence (LI): signs too rare in at least one of the groups to calculate a P-value.

Only signs that were significantly differently displayed compared to controls are listed. Groups are omitted if none of the signs were significantly different compared to controls.

Not shown is the comparison of signs between controls and cattle inoculated with tissue of expected infectivity (group 3, study 2) because there was no significant difference for any of the signs.

Konold et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2010 6:53   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-6-53

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