Table 4

Relative frequency of clinical signs expressed at the last three observation periods prior to cull compared to control cattle

Study

1

1

2


Groups

1 g & 100 g

1 g

4


Postmortem BSE diagnosis

Pos

Neg

Pos


Behaviour


Apprehension

↑↑↑

↑↑


Unusual asymmetrical ear movements

↑↑↑


Grooming self

↑↑


Nose licking


Snorting


Sneezing


Head toss


Sensation


Hyperaesthesia

↑↑↑


Abnormal hand approach/clipboard test

↑↑↑


Startle at movement

↑↑↑


Startle at movement incl. hand approach/clipboard test

↑↑↑


Startle at noise


Posture


Abnormal head carriage


Groups were compared with undosed controls (study 1) or saline-inoculated controls (study 2). The BSE-positive animals dosed with 1 g and 100 g in study 1 were combined to increase the sample size.

An arrow (↑) indicates that the sign or sign combination is more frequent than in control cattle, with P<0.001 (↑↑↑), P = 0.001-0.01 (↑↑) and P>0.01 and <0.05 (↑). Blank cell: not significant (P>0.05) or no P-value given because of absence of this sign in both groups.

Only signs that were significantly differently displayed compared to controls are listed. Not shown are the comparisons of signs between controls and BSE-negative cattle dosed with 100 g of BSE brainstem (study 1) and between controls and BSE-negative cattle in groups 2 and 3 (study 2) because there was no significant difference for any of the signs.

Konold et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2010 6:53   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-6-53

Open Data