Table 2

Signs at the pre-cull examination in BSE cases confirmed on postmortem diagnosis in study 1 and grouped by the occurrence/severity of vacuolar changes in the brainstem

Vacuolation (N = 21)

No or minimal vacuolation (N = 9)

P value


Present/Na (%)

Present/Na (%)


Behaviour


Nervous or apprehensive in corridor

15/21 (71.4%)

5/9 (55.6%)

0.431


Nervous or head shy in crush

11/21 (52.4%)

2/9 (22.2%)

0.229


Crush refused or entered reluctantly

5/21 (23.8%)

2/9 (22.2%)

1.000


Obstacle refused or not approached

3/18 (16.7%)

1/9 (11.1%)

1.000


Kicked out - free

3/21 (14.3%)

0/9 (0%)

0.535


Yawning

3/21 (14.3%)

1/9 (11.1%)

1.000


Vocal - free

1/21 (4.8%)

1/9 (11.1%)

0.517


Teeth grinding

1/21 (4.8%)

0/9 (0%)

1.000


Sensation


Clipboard test abnormal ≥1

14/18 (77.8%)

1/6 (16.7%)

0.015**


Over-reactivity to sound ≥1

14/21 (66.7%)

2/9 (22.2%)

0.046*


Flinch/startle free once

13/21 (61.9%)

3/9 (33.3%)

0.236


Tests of over-reactivity abnormal once/2 tests

13/21 (61.9%)

1/9 (11.1%)

0.017**


Flinch or startle free more than once

12/21 (57.1%)

2/9 (22.2%)

0.118


Head tests - nervous

12/21 (57.1%)

0/9 (0%)

0.004***


Clipboard test abnormal >2

9/18 (50.0%)

0/6 (0%)

0.052


Flash test abnormal ≥1

10/20 (50.0%)

0/8 (0%)

0.025*


Tests of over-reactivity abnormal x3/2 tests

8/21 (38.1%)

0/9 (0%)

0.067


Head restraint - nervous

1/21 (4.8%)

0/9 (0%)

1.000


Over-reactivity to sound >2

7/21 (33.3%)

2/9 (22.2%)

0.681


Exaggerated menace response

5/16 (31.3%)

0/9 (0%)

0.286


Flash test abnormal >2

4/20 (20.0%)

0/8 (0%)

0.295


Neck prick - nervous

8/21 (38.1%)

0/9 (0%)

1.000


Stick test abnormal

0/21 (0%)

0/9 (0%)

1.000


Movement


Ataxia or hypermetria

14/20 (70.0%)

2/9 (22.2%)

0.041*


Tremor

15/21 (71.4%)

4/9 (44.4%)

0.225


a The total number of animals varied because not all signs were assessed in all animals. Excluded are the signs "last in crush" and "nervous entering the milking parlour" because of the limited assessment of this sign in one or both groups.

P values are expressed quantitatively; values below 0.05 were considered significant and marked * (P = 0.02-0.05), ** (P = 0.01-0.02) or *** (P = 0-0.01).

Konold et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2010 6:53   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-6-53

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