Additional file 5.

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139 (BSE positive-HP). Steer, examined prior to cull at 39 months after oral dosing with 100 g of BSE affected brainstem homogenate (study 1). This steer is apprehensive in the corridor and very reluctant to approach the crush, seemingly afraid of the channel and later the wet patch on the floor. Note the spontaneous startle while approaching the crush. Its reaction to menace response testing is exaggerated and it over-reacts to facial stimuli with repeated rapid, forceful upwards head movements (head bobbing, recorded as 'nervous on head tests'). Exposure to a flash of light elicits startle, even on repeated tests. This steer was positive for BSE by postmortem tests with vacuolar changes in the obex.

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Konold et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2010 6:53   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-6-53