Open Access Research article

SNR analysis: molecular investigation of an anthrax epidemic

Giuliano Garofolo1*, Andrea Ciammaruconi2, Antonio Fasanella1, Silvia Scasciamacchia1, Rosanna Adone3, Valentina Pittiglio2 and Florigio Lista2

Author Affiliations

1 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Anthrax Reference Institute of Italy- Foggia, Italy

2 Army Medical and Veterinary Research Institute - Rome, Italy

3 Istituto Superiore di Sanità - Rome, Italy

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BMC Veterinary Research 2010, 6:11  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-6-11

Published: 28 February 2010



In Italy, anthrax is endemic but occurs sporadically. During the summer of 2004, in the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy, an anthrax epidemic consisting of 41 outbreaks occurred; it claimed the lives of 124 animals belonging to different mammal species. This study is a retrospective molecular epidemiological investigation carried out on 53 isolates collected during the epidemic. A 25-loci Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) MLVA was initially performed to define genetic relationships, followed by an investigation of genetic diversity between epidemic strains through Single Nucleotide Repeat (SNR) analysis.


53 Bacillus anthracis strains were isolated. The 25-loci MLVA analysis identified all of them as belonging to a single genotype, while the SNR analysis was able to detect the existence of five subgenotypes (SGTs), allowing a detailed epidemic investigation. SGT-1 was the most frequent (46/53); SGTs 2 (4/53), 3 (1/53) 4 (1/53) and 5 (1/53) were detected in the remaining seven isolates.


The analysis revealed the prevalent spread, during this epidemic, of a single anthrax clone. SGT-1 - widely distributed across the epidemic area and present throughout the period in question - may, thus, be the ancestral form. SGTs 2, 3 and 4 differed from SGT-1 at only one locus, suggesting that they could have evolved directly from the latter during the course of this epidemic. SGT-5 differed from the other SGTs at 2-3 loci. This isolate, thus, appears to be more distantly related to SGT-1 and may not be a direct descendant of the lineage responsible for the majority of cases in this epidemic. These data confirm the importance of molecular typing and subtyping methods for in-depth epidemiological analyses of anthrax epidemics.