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Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

Constantianus JM Koenraadt1*, Thomas Balenghien23, Simon Carpenter4, Els Ducheyne5, Armin RW Elbers6, Mark Fife7, Claire Garros23, Adolfo Ibáñez-Justicia8, Helge Kampen9, Richard JM Kormelink10, Bertrand Losson11, Wim HM van der Poel12, Nick De Regge13, Piet A van Rijn14, Christopher Sanders15, Francis Schaffner16, Marianne M Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan17, Willem Takken1, Doreen Werner18 and Frederik Seelig1

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands

2 CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France

3 INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France

4 Entomology Group, The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK

5 Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium

6 Department of Epidemiology, Crisis organisation and Diagnostics (ECD), Central Veterinary Institute (CVI), part of Wageningen UR, Houtribweg 39, 8221 RA Lelystad, The Netherlands

7 Genetics and Genomics Group, The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, GU24 0NF, UK

8 Ministry of Economic Affairs, Food and Consumer Safety Authority, Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Geertjesweg 15, 6706 EA Wageningen, The Netherlands

9 Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald - Insel, Riems, Germany

10 Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands

11 Departement des maladies infectieuses et parasitaires, University of Liège, Boulevard de Colonster 20, 4000 Liège, Belgium

12 Department of Virology, Central Veterinary Institute, Wageningen University and Research Center, Edelhertweg 15, 8219 PH Lelystad, The Netherlands

13 Enzootic and (re)emerging Diseases, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium

14 Department of Virology, Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR (CVI), Houtribweg 39, 8221 RA Lelystad, The Netherlands

15 The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK

16 National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland

17 Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 112, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands

18 Institut für Landnutzungssysteme, Medizinische Entomologie, Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforchung, Eberswalder Strasse 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany

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BMC Veterinary Research 2014, 10:77  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-77

Published: 31 March 2014


In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have highlighted large knowledge gaps on the biology and ecology of indigenous Culicoides species. With these research gaps in mind, and as a means of assessing what potential disease outbreaks to expect in the future, an international workshop was held in May 2013 at Wageningen University, The Netherlands. It brought together research groups from Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and The Netherlands, with diverse backgrounds in vector ecology, epidemiology, entomology, virology, animal health, modelling, and genetics. Here, we report on the key findings of this workshop.

Culicoides; Midge; Schmallenberg virus; Bluetongue virus; Emerging disease; Ecology